Kristina Logan Volume 39.3

TURQUOISE FLORAL PENDANT/BROOCH of flameworked glass and fabricated sterling silver, 7 centimeters diameter, 2016. Photograph by Dean Powell. 

TURQUOISE FLORAL PENDANT/BROOCH of flameworked glass and fabricated sterling silver, 7 centimeters diameter, 2016. Photograph by Dean Powell. 

After extensive renovations, the Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian American Art Museum reopened this past July with a stellar showcase of objects from its permanent collection. “Connections: Contemporary Craft at the Renwick Gallery,” which is ongoing, offers eighty-plus eclectic and engaging examples of craft art, from the Eames brothers’ plywood Leg Splint, 1942, to Judith Schaechter’s stained glass The Birth of Eve, 2013. Curated by Nora Atkinson, the Lloyd Herman Curator of Craft, the exhibition works by association rather than by chronology, seeking to emulate today’s hyperlinked world.

      Kristina Logan is represented by a brooch/pendant featuring a pattern of cobalt and silver accented with a ring of sterling dots. The lampworked soda-lime glass and sterling silver piece, made in 2001, is displayed alongside Alexander Calder’s undated hammered copper Necklace. In a video produced for the show, Logan speaks about Calder and their aesthetic ties. She loves how he used simple materials and created value “by infusing them with creative energy, ideas and careful mark-making.” Glass, like brass and copper, she notes, “has little intrinsic value, but it is the artist’s hand and spirit” that can give them worth.

Logan’s appearance in the Renwick show comes as no surprise: over the past twenty-five years, she has become one of the foremost glass bead artists in the world. Her work is in major collections, including the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, and she has earned special recognition in her field, including the title “Dot Queen”—for the marvelous array of dots that accent her beads.

Certain of Logan’s designs, such as the Constellation necklace and the Cactus bead, are icons of contemporary beadwork. Her brooches, pendants, rings, and necklaces mesmerize. Kaleidoscopic disks set in sterling silver dazzle the eye.

COLLECTION OF TOTEM BEADS of flameworked glass, largest bead 10 centimeters long, 2000-2003. Photograph by Dean Powell.

COLLECTION OF TOTEM BEADS of flameworked glass, largest bead 10 centimeters long, 2000-2003. Photograph by Dean Powell.

     Having started out making single beads, today Logan is the creator of reliquaries, candlesticks, goblets, teapots, chalices, and other objects that incorporate her beadwork. She is increasingly interested in pushing the boundaries of scale while retaining her intricate details. She is currently finishing up several statuesque drinking vessels inspired by eighteenth-century Nuremberg goblets she discovered in the Corning Museum of Glass. While the profile of her lidded goblets are similar to those early ones, the flameworked, pâte de verre and bronze pieces are “incredibly different” on a tactile level. One of them was featured in the recent exhibition “Beginnings” at the Corning Museum of Glass.

When asked about the evolution of her designs, Logan admits to progressing in geological time—very slowly. If you were to look at her beads today alongside ones she made early on, you would be able, she avers, to see the lineage. She does make drawings—of the brooches and metalwork—but the bead designs arise from experimentation. Once in a while an idea will come to her when she is not looking for it, at three in the morning, but ninety-nine percent of the time it happens when she is in the studio. She believes the constant pattern of work brings ideas. “I believe in that preparation,” she has stated. The concentration that comes with deadlines helps spur the work forward.

GOBLET of glass, bronze, silver, steel, lost wax cast and flameworked glass, cast bronze, 11.43 x 11.43 x 33.02 centimeters, 2016. Photograph by Bill Truslow.

     Logan’s beads are marked by opaque and transparent layers—“That’s how I find color,” she says. Starting with a “Crayola box of all the colors,” she uses layering to play subtle variations on the palette, thereby altering the design from piece to piece. She relishes this exploration of tint and shade and hue. Early on Logan was not always comfortable with color, and has noted, she “may have been afraid of it.” It was not the color in flameworking that interested her so much as the fluidity and movement of melting glass.

Logan likes working in series, “beading an idea to death,” she says with a smile, until she gets it right. She loves the refining process, a “precision” that comes “from hours and hours of going back over the same concept again and again,” deepening the vocabulary along the way. While she admires artists who can jump ideas, it is not in her DNA to work that way.

Architectural detail has been an important inspiration, be it East Indian doorways, Moroccan tiles, or mosaics from the pre-Renaissance and Renaissance. European reliquaries from 1300-1500, the bronze armatures found in Louis Comfort Tiffany’s work—these also inspire, as do patterns in nature. One collection of brooches got its start after Logan came across a book on ancient shields of Africa, South East Asia and Oceania from the Barbier-Mueller Museum collection in Geneva, Switzerland.

Logan has made it her mission to challenge the stereotype of bead jewelry, namely, beads strung together or with knots between them, like a string of pearls or a rosary. She is committed to connecting beads with metal in a way that is nontraditional, that “counteracts that idea of stringing.” To that end she cuts, drills and grinds her beads, in the process taking them to a new place in the realm of ornament. She is an innovator.

COLLECTION of large disk beads in flameworked glass, 5.08 centimeters diameter, 2016. Photograph by Kristina Logan.

     Kristina Logan was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, but spent much of her early life in New Hampshire’s White Mountains; she considers the Plymouth/Waterville Valley area her home. She boasts significant artistic genes, especially when it comes to working with her hands. Her mother, Reg Logan, née Surette, was a fashion illustrator at a time when newspaper and magazine advertisements were hand-drawn; today, she makes insect jewelry and ceramic objects. Logan’s grandmother, Reggie Surette, also worked in illustration, hand-drawing and -coloring for the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, while her grandfather, Eliot Surette, did restoration in churches in the Boston area.

Growing up in this artistic milieu Logan recalls thinking that she, too, would draw for a living. In turn, she tells her own children, nine-year-old Valère and twelve-year-old Sophia, that she can tell that they already have the family hands. One of her necklace designs, a lively and playful collection of round beads, is named for her daughter.

Logan earned a BFA in sculpture at the University of New Hampshire in Durham in 1987. The all-star faculty included painter John Hatch (1919-1998), printmaker and draftsman Sigmund Abeles, and sculptor Michael McConnell (1948-2012). She appreciated the focus they placed on the foundations for making art—and their stories of life in New York City. She ended up embracing 3-D and carving in wood, sometimes with a chainsaw.

After moving to the coast of New Hampshire, Logan chanced into a job working for the renowned glass artist Dan Dailey in Kensington. “He needed people with good hands,” she recalls, and she fit the bill. In the four years in his studio, she received an education in glass. She did a lot of enameling on vases, as well as sandblasting, cold working, studio organizing “and making sure that pieces got to factories in West Virginia to be dipped in acid, and got back home again.”

One night while attending Pilchuk Glass School, Logan spied someone flameworking. She remembers thinking, “Oh, man, you mean I can do glass by myself? Without an enormous studio?” While she appreciates the sense of teamwork found among a group of glass blowers, she prefers working alone. As she noted in a 2009 interview, she likes the feeling of being self-reliant. 

Logan-LR-DSC_0957.jpg

     Logan was at Pilchuk to take a class in pâte de verre, which she describes as a kind of lost wax casting technique for glass. She was interested in trying to incorporate cast parts into the wood sculptures she was making at the time, but she found herself “seduced” by the flame and melting glass, by the intimacy and smaller scale of this work—“a torch and two hands.”

When she began to make beads, Logan was not all that serious. It was an amusement; “Oh, I’ll make some beads, it’ll be great, I’ll sell them for a dollar,” she recalls thinking. She had no idea that she would become fascinated by the rich cultural and anthropological history and reach of beadmaking. “All of a sudden,” she recounts, “I kind of plummeted into this world that I now exist in and adore.”

For a time Logan sold individual beads that other people would use to make jewelry. She attended bead shows, loading up her Volkswagen van and hitting the road. It afforded her a modest living and was “very empowering.” After a while, however, she wanted to make something out of the beads. She began collaborating with a jeweler friend who taught her how to solder. Soon she was making a few pieces of her own and loved it.

PREPARING the silver prior to soldering for Ivory and Red Constellation Necklace, 2015. Photograph by Kristina Logan.

     Logan never went to school for metalwork, but she knew enough to make the pieces she wanted to produce. If she wished to try something new, she would ask a friend—and sometimes her mother—how to do it. “I’ve always learned metalsmithing through osmosis,” she says. Formal training came from a few evening classes with the Australian silversmith Alan Place who worked for a time at Old Newbury Crafters in Amesbury, Massachusetts.

In her thirties Logan “induced” arthritis in the cartilage in her left thumb from nearly non-stop beadmaking. Taken aback by the idea that one could wear out a body part at that age, she wore a brace for a while, but continued to work as hard as ever. Eventually realizing that she could no longer be a “bead machine,” Logan began making larger objects and combining glass and metals. Returning to her sculptural roots, to what was important to her as an artist, she needed to invest more heart into her work in order “to feel better about myself and not have my hands wear out.”At the same time Logan began to see the potential of beads as sculptural forms. Individual beads could be resonant objects that people might carry around with them, like a Japanese netsuke or a marble—“a small piece that holds importance.” She came to believe that an object could be made so carefully that it could hold “spiritual content” without being attached to any specific religion.

Logan’s totem beads, inspired by ancient African granite beads, epitomize this belief. She started out making them as handles for objects, but never made the actual object for the handle. While she has made a few brooches out of them, she feels they connect to the hand more than anything.

Logan likes working in series, ‘beading an idea to death,’ she says with a smile, until she gets it right. She loves the refining process, a ‘precision’ that comes ‘from hours and hours of going back over the same concept again and again,’ deepening the vocabulary along the way. While she admires artists who can jump ideas, it is not in her DNA to work that way.

     The “Contemporary Glass Bead Exhibition” in Prescott, Arizona, in 1993 proved to be a turning point, both for Logan and the universe of bead artists. “You can kind of call that the beginning of the glass bead movement,” she says. About eighty people came together and realized, “Hey, we’re all making glass beads! We’re a society.” The Society of Glass Beadmakers, later changed to the International Society of Glass Beadmakers, was born. Logan would serve as its president in 1996-1998 and later, in 2005, win its Hall of Flame award. Its annual conference, called “The Gathering,” takes place in a different spot each year. While the ISGB has, says Logan, waxed and waned over the years, “we still get together.”

KRISTINA LOGAN’S STUDIO, designed and built by Michael Graf. Photograph by Kristen Fuller.

     Asked about how she balances teaching with her artmaking, Logan estimates that ninety percent of the time she is working alone in the studio—“just me making”—with the balance spent leading workshops. In addition to instructorships at Haystack, the Corning Museum, Penland, and other schools and private studios further afield, she has started offering bead workshops at her new studio in Portsmouth. Being around other artists and interacting with students charges her up.

In the workshop at Haystack, assisted by bead artist Priscilla Turner Spada from Newburyport, Massachusetts, Logan taught flamework technique—“all beads, all the time”—plus how to insert silver rivets in the bead holes. Seated before torches attached to three benches set along a wall of windows overlooking Jericho Bay, the students gamely wound the melting soda-lime glass canes around mandrels and listened as Logan shared the thought process that goes into creating her beads.

Logan has sought to impart her knowledge of her art to an ever broader audience. In 2009, the Corning Museum of Glass helped in that mission, producing “Beadmaking with Kristina Logan,” the seventh installment in its Master Class series. In the thirty-minute video Logan offers insight into her artistic principles. She notes, for example, that she has never turned away from making smaller beads because “it all serves the greater purpose, to have your hands ready to work with this molten material.” She also admits she is not a fast beadmaker. Indeed, she encourages her students to “seek ease and the fewest movements possible.” She likens it to her yoga practice “where your movement and your breath are very much connected to your mind at the same time.”

IVORY AND RED CONSTELLATION NECKLACE of flameworked glass and fabricated sterling silver, 4.45 x 1.27 x 66.04 centimeters, 2015. Photograph by Dean Powell.

      “Bead people are passionate about beads,” Logan says. They understand the primal connection people have to these pieces of glass and how they are worn on the body. They also appreciate, as she does, the long lineage of beadwork in the cultures of the world. These beautiful objects bring people together “on a heart level.” That is the level to which Logan aspires, in art and life.

SUGGESTED READING 
Benesh, Carolyn L. E. “Kristina Logan. A Luminous Aesthetic.” Ornament 21.4: 42-45, 1998.
DeDominicis, Jill. “Kristina Logan. Master Class in Glass Beadmaking.” Ornament 30.3: 64-67, 2007.
Dubin, Lois Sherr. The History of Beads: From 100,000 B.C. to the Present, revised and expanded edition. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2009.
Hemachandra, Ray, editor. The Penland Book of Glass: Master Classes in Flamework Techniques. Lark Crafts, 2011.
Jenkins, Cindy. Making Glass Beads (Beadwork Books). New York: Lark Books, 1997.
Logan, Kristina. “Creative Process and Inspiration.” Glass Bead Evolution. International Society of Glass Beadmakers, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2014.
     Masters: Glass Beads: Major Works by Leading Artists. New York: Lark Books, 2008.
     1000 Glass Beads: Innovation & Imagination in Contemporary Glass Beadmaking. New York: Lark Books, 2004.

 

     Get Inspired!

 
 

Carl Little caught up with Kristina Logan in late August at the Haystack Mountain School of Crafts on Deer Isle where she was teaching a workshop on glass beadmaking. Based in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Logan is “the leading maker of glass beads working today,” according to David Whitehouse, executive director of the Corning Museum of Glass. Little is one of twenty poets featured in a series of videos produced during Maine poet laureate Wesley McNair’s tenure. They can be viewed on the University of Maine website. His most recent book is Wendy Turner—Island Light.

Egyptian Broadcollars Volume 39.3

VIRTUALLY INTACT FAIENCE BROADCOLLAR OF WAH, an estate manager, XIth Dynasty, circa 2020 B.C., 39.4 cm deep. X-ray in 1940 revealed this almost intact broadcollar within his mummy wrappings. It is the best preserved example of its type and is strung on linen threads without disk beads, with the typical fringe of drop pendants and semi-circular terminals. The first row has 83 cylindrical faience beads, the last 222 beads, increasing gradually in length from top to bottom, hinting at how many beads are required for this broadcollar. Ceramic artist Carol Strick has made a replica of this necklace. Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund/E. S. Harkness Gift, 1940, 40.3.2; gallery 105. Photographed as displayed, with high ISO and manual mode on a Canon SLR. Photographs by Robert K. Liu/Ornament unless noted.

VIRTUALLY INTACT FAIENCE BROADCOLLAR OF WAH, an estate manager, XIth Dynasty, circa 2020 B.C., 39.4 cm deep. X-ray in 1940 revealed this almost intact broadcollar within his mummy wrappings. It is the best preserved example of its type and is strung on linen threads without disk beads, with the typical fringe of drop pendants and semi-circular terminals. The first row has 83 cylindrical faience beads, the last 222 beads, increasing gradually in length from top to bottom, hinting at how many beads are required for this broadcollar. Ceramic artist Carol Strick has made a replica of this necklace. Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund/E. S. Harkness Gift, 1940, 40.3.2; gallery 105. Photographed as displayed, with high ISO and manual mode on a Canon SLR. Photographs by Robert K. Liu/Ornament unless noted.

No other ancient culture has been as well-studied as that of Predynastic and Dynastic Egypt, especially the personal adornment of their upper class women and men. Well-developed technologies of working stone, metal, faience, glass, and fibers, all under the control of dynastic elites, contributed to a precision and uniformity of jewelry and dress. Living in a hot, dry climate, men wore linen kilts, women thin, tight sheath dresses of the same fiber, some pleated, and often with straps that covered the breasts. For health and comfort, both sexes usually shaved their heads, using wigs to prevent sunstroke (Watterson 1991). Depictions of ancient Egyptians on paintings, reliefs and statuary invariably showed them wearing broadcollars, almost an essential form of dress. The majority of broadcollars were made of cylindrical and/or disk beads of faience, a self-glazing, thixotropic ceramic that was both a luxury and a magical product for the elite (Friedman 1998).

 

To Read the Full Article

 
 

Robert K. Liu is Coeditor of Ornament and for many years its in-house photographer. His recent book, The Photography of Personal Adornment, covers forty plus years of shooting jewelry, clothing and events related to wearable art, both in and out of the Ornament studio. Recently he has been teaching one-on-one photography lessons at our office, as well as teaching workshops on bamboo jewelry. In this issue Liu writes about ancient Egyptian broadcollars, usually made of faience beads, how they were made and extant examples of this beautiful item of dress, including modern replicas by artist Carol Strick.

Tufted Tales: Chenille Garments Volume 39.3

Georgia and textiles, cotton in particular, have a long association, and the West Georgia Textile Heritage Trail is bringing increased recognition to the history of the industrial growth resulting from that union. In addition to the expected cotton mills, the trail highlights numerous factories devoted to the production of garments and accessories including hosiery, underwear and—in Bremen—menswear. In the northwestern corner of the state, especially in the town of Dalton, the trail focuses on the old highway where small roadside businesses sold souvenirs like tufted peacock bathrobes and on the mills that manufactured chenille bedspreads and garments before focusing on the production of carpet. My book Southern Tufts: The Regional Origins and National Craze for Chenille Fashion, published by the University of Georgia Press, is part of a growing body of research into the region’s textile history and the first to focus on tufted fashion.

      In the spring of 2015 the West Georgia Textile Heritage Trail organized a conference focused on using the arts to tell textile stories; the event included presentations about mill town music, life in a mill village, using theater to convey information about the past, and incorporating narrative elements into the promotion of historic destinations. I shared stories about the makers and manufacturers of tufted garments, encouraging the careful reconsideration of well-known stories and the inclusion of individuals at all levels of production, as well as stressing the importance of preserving objects. Following are five tufted textile stories.

CATHERINE EVANS WHITENER AND CANDLEWICK KIMONOS

CATHERINE EVANS WHITENER with a candlewick bedspread, circa 1960. Courtesy of Bandy Heritage Center for Northwest Georgia, Carpet and Rug Institute Photograph Collection.

      Almost any recounting of the history of Georgia’s tufted textiles begins with the story of Catherine Evans Whitener (1880-1964) and her “rediscovery” of the traditional candlewick technique for decorating spreads in the late nineteenth century. Actually, there was increased interest in these historic textiles in many parts of the United States as part of the Colonial Revival. As Americans celebrated the country’s centenary and reflected on the people, places, and objects associated with its founding, they turned to forms like candlewick spreads, originally popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, for inspiration. 

Whitener, inspired by an antique candlewick spread in a relative’s home, made her first few spreads as gifts, then began selling them. Orders quickly outpaced her individual production capabilities and she taught neighboring women her process. She either drew her own pattern or copied an existing spread by placing it fluff-side down with a fresh sheet on top that she rubbed with a greased tin (or other “stamping iron”) to transfer the pattern. Then she stitched the pattern with plain running stitches, clipped the stitches with scissors, and boiled the fabric to shrink the weave and hold the stitches in place. Finally, she dried and fluffed the spreads, creating the familiar pompom decorations. The women she taught in turn instructed others, and a cottage industry developed. By the mid-1910s department stores throughout the Midwest and New England carried the popular southern bedspreads. As automobile travel increased (especially by the late 1920s), Dalton also developed a thriving culture of roadside stands, known as “spreadlines,” selling tufted products.

As consumer demand for the textiles increased, and due to government pressure for fair wages, the industry mechanized in the early 1930s. The new machine-tufted textiles were called chenille, French for “caterpillar,” to distinguish them from the earlier hand-tufted candlewick goods. As the mechanization process progressed, the machines evolved from single-needle converted sewing machines to large, multi-needle machines that could produce tufted yardage. Later, carpet became the dominate tufted product, eclipsing chenille in the 1950s. 

MRS. RALPH HANEY wearing a candlewick kimono with a peacock design, circa 1920. Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia Collection, gor466.

      The tufted textile industry whole-heartedly embraced and promoted the story of Catherine Evans Whitener by the 1930s. For example, in 1953 a buyer for Rich’s department store in Atlanta wrote an article for the Tufted Textile Manufacturers Association Directory, the industry’s annual publication, advising stores to tell their sales forces “about the young farm girl, Catherine Evans, who made the first modern tufted spread in 1895 and launched a multi-million dollar industry.” As Philis Alvic details in her book Weavers of the Southern Highlands, other textile production centers in southern Appalachia in the early twentieth century offered similar stories in order to connect their modern textiles with antiques and capitalize on the popularity of the Colonial Revival.

Though rarely mentioned, Whitener made garments—aprons and kimonos—as well as spreads. While none of her garments are known to survive, a single photographic image from the region showing Mrs. Ralph Haney (née Exzene Carter, 1894-1962) wearing a kimono suggests the type of work Whitener would have done. Haney’s kimono appears to be hand tufted in a single color on a solid color background and shows a peacock next to a vase in a trellis setting.

I found several advertisements from 1923 in northeastern newspapers for candlewick kimonos, and while the ads do not mention Georgia, the garments are similar in style and description to Haney’s. One ad, for the Joseph Horne Company in Pittsburgh, lists some of the color combinations of these garments as “gray with rose designs, orchid with lavender, orange with blue, pumpkin with white, black with rose, old blue with white, yellow with yellow, leaf green with green.”

These were part of a vogue for Orientalism in fashion, and the butterflies, peacocks, and kimono form are relevant to that theme. The production in southern Appalachia of kimonos that were handcrafted using a traditional technique related to the Colonial Revival and reflecting a Japanese-inspired contemporary fashion trend, represents a remarkable combination of influences that enriches Whitener’s story and helps expand its significance beyond local history.

A PINK CANDLEWICK DRESS

CANDLEWICK COTTON DRESS, circa 1930s. Photograph by Michael McKelvey. Collection of Bradley Putnam.

      While visiting with a collector in Tunnel Hill, a small town north of Dalton, I encountered an unusual pink dress and bonnet. The dress was a mystery to the collector; he purchased it because it was tufted, but did not know its history.

At the time, I was well into my research and particularly interested by how in the late 1920s and early 1930s women from the region helped promote candlewick spreads by traveling to department stores throughout the country to give hand-tufting demonstrations. Often these women wore Colonial Revival style costumes with bonnets. An ad for a demonstration at Macy’s in New York in 1931 reads, “You’ll have to imagine the log cabin and the cotton fields background. But the girls themselves, in cotton frocks and sunbonnets, will be here, tufting the spreads by hand, just as they do in their native Georgia.” Other evidence suggests that these “native costumes,” as they often were called, were sometimes tufted.

As I examined the pink dress—hand tufted then dyed, assembled with a sewing machine, a silhouette that recalls a French shepherdess—the details all suggested that this was a rare survival: an example of a costume worn by a hand-tufting demonstrator. It is not an accurate copy of anything that existed historically and it is not a style that was ever popular during the twentieth century, but it is appropriate as a circa 1930 interpretation of something from “golden olden times.”

The marketing of candlewick spreads was not the only entrepreneurial enterprise that benefited from the incorporation of Colonial Revival style costumes. Fashion historian Beverly Gordon, in an article on Colonial Revival fashion published in Dress, explains that by the interwar years the practice was popular in businesses such as Colonial-style tea rooms (with costumed waitresses) because the high moral associations with the style helped increase profits. She also notes that historical accuracy was less important than conveying a sense of a charming and picturesque past. The lovely image that the candlewick demonstrators presented helped sell bedspreads, but it was actually a far cry from the experiences of many of the tufters, often desperately poor women working long, hard hours for very little pay.

EMILY BENNETT AND U.S. 41

TWO VIEWS of Mrs. J. H. Bennett’s chenille business, with Willie Jean Chitwood, Helen Bennett (Mrs. Bennett’s daughter), and Aveline Chitwood seated at left, circa 1937. Photographs probably taken by Iduma Chitwood. Collection of Helen Johnson.

      Many small businesses existed along the highway, first called the Dixie Highway and later U.S. 41, in northwestern Georgia. One belonged to Mrs. J. H. Bennett (née Emily Mealor or Mealer, 1904-1997). Select records from her business survive in the collection of the Whitfield-Murray Historical Society in Dalton, and one of her daughters, Helen Johnson, who lives a few miles from where her mother worked, recalls many details about what she made.

Bennett began working as a hand tufter while her husband farmed; they lived out in the country at the time and she sold her wares on the spreadline of a friend who lived near the highway. Then the family moved to U.S. 41 and she set up her own spreadline near the Resaca Confederate Cemetery, just south of Dalton. In the early 1930s her husband built her a little log cabin and she worked there alone. In many ways, she epitomized the popular notion of a traditional Appalachian craftswoman; she almost always wore a bonnet, she used an old-timey needlework technique, she was near a Civil War historic sight, and she worked in a log cabin, albeit a brand-new one. In 1936 the Atlanta Journal even included two photographs of her business on a rotogravure page about Bedspread Boulevard, as the highway was called at the time. In addition to bedspreads, she made pillows and aprons, which the newspaper described as “novel.”

CHENILLE COTTON APRON by Mrs. J. H. Bennett, undated. Photograph by Michael McKelvey. Courtesy of the Whitfield-Murray Historical Society, Crown Gardens & Archives, Dalton, Georgia, gift of Helen Johnson.

      Bennett soon acquired a single-needle tufting machine, adding bath sets, capes, jackets, and robes to her inventory, then moved to a new spreadline down the road. Her daughter believes that Bennett’s ability to sew clothing—a skill learned of necessity because she had four daughters and limited income—helped her translate the tufted textiles into appealing garments.

Bennett had regular customers who would visit her when traveling U.S. 41 to vacation in Florida and who would write to her during the year to place orders. Sometimes travelers would make purchases as they traveled through and she would ship the goods to their far-away homes. She also sold to a few department stores in Chicago. Bennett continued her business until Interstate 75 opened in 1965 and drew away the tourist traffic from the older highway, though she still tufted until she was eighty years of age.

ARTHUR RICHMAN AND THE ART-RICH MANUFACTURING COMPANY

MATCHBOOK COVER advertisement for Blue Ridge Manufacturing Company, circa 1945. Private Collection.

      As chenille garments became increasingly popular in the late 1930s, several big spread companies realized that they needed to bring in specialized talent. They knew how to manufacture and design and market spreads, but clothing was new to them. Samuel Hurowitz (b. Russia, 1898-1975), who had founded Blue Ridge Spread in Dalton in 1933, added a garment department and in 1939 had hired Arthur “Artie” Richman (b. Poland, 1904-1965), an experienced garment designer in New York, to run it.

Richman’s designs for Blue Ridge included a series of chenille robes with playing card motifs, recorded through patent applications. He filed for the patents in April 1943 and was granted them in December 1943, but during that time much of Blue Ridge’s production was turned over to the war effort.
Blue Ridge featured the heart design in an advertisement in Glamour in 1944 that acknowledged the reality of wartime retail. Part of the text reads, “We are still trying to make shipments… to at least one store in each city so that you may have yours.”

Sometime before World War II ended Richman left Blue Ridge to start his own company, Ann-Lee Chenilles, which existed only briefly. By 1947 he had established Art-Rich Manufacturing Company, a large, long-lived business that focused on chenille robes for women and children. The overwhelming majority of chenille manufactories were in northwestern Georgia, and in 1949 the industry produced almost five and one half million chenille robes. Even though Richman’s business was one of the younger ones in the region and it never manufactured hand-tufted candlewick products, he still capitalized on the appeal of the industry’s early southern roots by adding paper tags to his robes that read, “This chenille robe is made where the candlewick tufting industry originated,” with an image of cotton.

MODEL wearing a chenille robe by Art-Rich, circa 1953. Courtesy of Bandy Heritage Center for Northwest Georgia, Carpet and Rug Institute Photograph Collection.

      For many years robe companies used the same basic pattern to make traditional wraparound robes, but as chenille robes started to lose favor in the 1950s—as national fashions changed and as carpet became the dominant tufted product in northwestern Georgia—robe manufacturers introduced a variety of different styles to try to maintain market share. Richman even wrote an article for the Tufted Textile Manufacturers Association Directory in 1954 addressing how the production of robes had shifted from employing single-needle machines (as multi-needle machines that could produce tufted yardage were common by that time) and one pattern that was used for years with just some variation in the decorative motifs to an industry with “constantly changing” styles requiring “new patterns... to keep pace with the trend.” He pointed out that the small changes, including the buttons and buttonholes and various trimmings, required additional materials and labor.

During the 1950s duster robes surpassed the popularity of traditional wraparound robes. These new robes, typically three-quarter-length, could be styled a variety of ways and appealed to the growing youth market. Chenille robes, though, never regained their former prominence and began to fall out of fashion. Art-Rich diversified its offerings, adding terrycloth robes. Shortly before Arthur Richman died in 1965, his son Martin Richman (1929-2007) took over the company. Art-Rich continued experimenting with new styles
and other materials, but could not compete as cheaper imported goods hit the market, and closed in the early 1980s.

MARILYN WOLF AND THE CHENILLE REVIVAL

POSTCARD of children’s recycled chenille bathrobes, 1997. Photograph by Michael Scott Studio, New York City. Marilyn Wolf Designs, collection of the artist.

      Chenille fashion experienced a revival towards the end of the twentieth century. Beginning by the early 1970s, crafters and designers began cutting up old tufted bedspreads to make new products, especially garments including jackets, robes, bloomers, aprons, bibs, skirts, pullover blouses, and hats. Many were motivated by nostalgia as well as an interest in recycling encouraged by the burgeoning environmental movement.

One of the designers to repurpose old spreads was Marilyn Wolf of Narberth, Pennsylvania. She had established a small manufacturing business around 1970 and in the mid-1990s she made a small collection of chenille robes using chenille yardage she had purchased from a close-out sale. Then, through an acquaintance who happened to own a rag factory (a business that collected leftover fabrics from thrift stores and other sources), she gained access to a seemingly limitless supply of vintage spreads. By the 1980s and 1990s, as many original owners of tufted bedspreads downsized their homes, secondary markets were flooded with inexpensive materials.

MARILYN WOLF JACKETS FLYER, “Jackets fashioned from vintage chenille,” circa 1997. Marilyn Wolf Designs, collection of the artist.

      Wolf used these to make colorful one-of-a-kind robes and jackets for women, as well as teddy bears and baby blankets, that are notable for their playful patchwork aesthetic and postmodern profusion of colors and patterns. As the supplies of chenille dwindled and material became more precious, and, she notes, as the market for high-end art clothing for children increased, Wolf turned her attention to small robes, rompers, and jackets for children. She often added non-chenille materials like marabou or vintage buttons. She sold her designs through exclusive stores including Nordstrom and Bloomingdale’s and in children’s boutiques across the country. When she could no longer find adequate supplies of quality chenille, she turned to other materials.  

 

Though the tufted textile industry was centered in the South, it became a national phenomenon. While Hollywood helped cement the iconic status of the chenille robe—with appearances ranging from glamorous actresses like Katharine Hepburn in Holiday in 1938 to Oscar-winner Shirley Booth’s downtrodden character in Come Back, Little Sheba in 1952 to Michael Douglas as a creative writing professor in the Wonder Boys in 2000—its presence in the lives of everyday Americans led to innumerable personal stories and memories about the material. In sharing my research for Southern Tufts, I have heard many recollections—about a mother’s favorite aqua robe with flowers, a child’s fascination with the rows of tufts on a bedspread, a family member who devoted a lifetime to the industry—and I welcome more stories and encourage the preservation of tufted textiles and their histories.



SUGGESTED READING
Alvic, Philis. Weavers of the Southern Highlands. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2003.
Callahan, Ashley. “From Roadside to Runway: A History of Chenille in Fashion.” Ornament 34.4: 26-31, 2011.
The Center for Public History at the University of West Georgia. Images of America: The West Georgia Textile Heritage Trail. Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2015.
Deaton, Thomas M. Bedspreads to Broadloom: The Story of the Tufted Carpet Industry. Acton, Massachusetts: Tapestry Press, 1993.
Gordon, Beverly. “Costumed Representations of Early America: A Gendered Portrayal, 1850-1940.” Dress 30: 3-20, 2003.

 

     Get Inspired!

 
 

Ashley Callahan is an independent scholar and curator in Athens, Georgia, with a specialty in modern and contemporary American decorative arts. The University of Georgia Press published her book Southern Tufts: The Regional Origins and National Craze for Chenille Fashion in December 2015. She grew up in Dalton—known over time as both the Bedspread Capital of the World and the Carpet Capital of the World—and is pleased to be able to share information about the tufted textile industry’s history and about her home state’s contributions to American fashion.

Yves Saint Laurent Volume 39.3

The legendary Yves Saint Laurent designed clothing for his glamorous mother and created exquisite wardrobes for paper dolls when he was still in his teens. Though he grew up in Oran, Algeria, far from Paris, the world’s fashion capital, Saint Laurent at seventeen won the Woolmark Prize competition, a prestigious international fashion industry award. A year later he was handpicked by Christian Dior, the sun king of 1950s haute couture, to be Dior’s second in command. From his start as a design prodigy until the closing of his heralded haute couture maison in 2002, Saint Laurent’s remarkable clothing redefined what it meant for women to be stylish and contemporary.

 

To Read the Full Article

 
 

Robin Updike has followed fashion in one way or another for most of her life. As a teenager she sewed most of her own clothes and in those years Vogue Patterns carried designs from major international designers, including Yves Saint Laurent. Updike still owns a prized Vogue Pattern for the famous YSL tuxedo for women and she was delighted to able to spend time at the Seattle Art Museum’s gorgeous homage to the legendary designer. Based in Seattle, Washington, Updike, a regular contributor to Ornament, writes about art, style and wine.

JOLI! Sierra Leone Headdresses Volume 39.3

JOLI! A Fancy Masquerade From Sierra Leone

The Fowler Museum at the University of California, Los Angeles, is extremely fortunate to have a rare group of eleven Joli headdresses from Sierra Leone, which are on view in the museum’s Focus Gallery through July 16, 2017. Joli headdresses are among the most complex and elaborately configured masquerade structures we know from sub-Saharan Africa, and the Joli masquerade was performed only in the port city of Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, during the 1970s.

      Following Sierra Leone’s independence, achieved in 1961 after over one hundred fifty years of British colonial rule, a wave of young migrants from the countryside—mostly members of the Temne ethnic group—moved to Freetown in hopes of finding greater opportunities and a better future. This gave rise to socioeconomic concerns about how best to integrate this influx of newly arrived young people into the city. Charitable organizations in Freetown—among them the Zorrow Unity Society and the Young Men’s Muslim Association (YMMA)—offered them food and shelter. These organizations also sponsored a variety of guided activities to help them adjust to urban life.

MASQUERADE HEADDRESS of wood, pigment, wire, fabric, fringe, braid, polyurethane foam, metal, 58.4 x 55.9 x 68.6 centimeters, Freetown, Sierra Leone, circa 1970s. Images courtesy of the Fowler Museum at UCLA.

      Notable among these efforts was the sponsorship of masquerades. Zorrow Unity and YMMA formed the Joli Society to produce a citywide parade festival to celebrate Eid al-Fitr, as well as other festive occasions. Members of the society were tasked with helping to create the spectacular headdresses that they would wear during these occasions. The word “fancy,” used to describe the events, seems to have come from its appearance in advertisements for yardage in local newspapers, as ornate brocades, damask, lace, and fringe were key materials used to create Joli headdresses. The term may also have entered the lexicon because “fancy costumes” were worn at balls during the British colonial era.

Deeper antecedents of the Joli masquerade may reside in a lantern festival celebrating the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Fitr that seems to have originated in the 1930s and may have been inspired by a Gambian festival celebrating the Christmas season. Over time, the handheld lanterns morphed into large motorized floats constructed with bent and twisted wire, bamboo and wood. These wire frameworks were covered with layers of fabric and paper. In the 1970s Joli headdresses were made using the same materials and techniques and adopted many of the themes that had been used in the floats, becoming a sort of portable equivalent. The elusive water spirit Mami Wata, who represents beauty and fertility, was frequently represented on headdresses. She often wears an elaborate crown, which may represent her own power or be a holdover from British royal iconography. A rampant lion and unicorn, symbols of the British crown, are also commonly featured on Joli headdresses. As Sierra Leone was and still is predominantly Muslim, it is not surprising that superstructures also portray mosques or Al-Buraq, the magical horse with a human face who carried Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem and back. Elephants, biplanes and other fanciful imagery are also common.

X-RAY OF MASQUERADE HEADDRESS shown above depicting the structural engineering of the object primarily using wires of different gauges. CT scan and X-Ray made possible with the cooperation of the UCLA Radiology Department, Translational Research Imaging Center.    

      Joli headdresses were produced in several stages, each undertaken by individuals with different skills. During the course of exhibition preparation and research, the Fowler arranged with the UCLA Radiology Department, Translational Research Imaging Center, to have one of its headdresses examined using Computed Tomography (CT), which employs computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images, allowing the viewer to see inside an object without cutting or dismantling.

As the CT scan reveals, the first and innermost layer provided the headdress’s structural foundation or armature and was made from bent and twisted wire of different gauges. A second layer was composed primarily of polyurethane padding, which was in turn overlaid with a wide array of materials: cloth printed with floral motifs or animal prints, gingham, shimmering brocades, lush velvets, beaded veils, and embellishments including Christmas tinsel, garlands, plastic flowers, cowrie shells, fringes, rickrack, lace, and mirrors.

One or more wooden masks were attached to the fancy superstructure, giving a face to the Joli headdress. The coiffures of these carved wooden masks were painted a high-luster black, which helped to reflect the light, and the use of pink, violet, red, and other vibrant colors to paint their faces is evocative of masking traditions of southeastern Nigeria, especially those of the Ibibio peoples. The entire headdress was worn on top of the head. The Joli masquerade performer completed the ensemble with a full-body costume made of printed cloth, with white gloves and knee-high white socks to cover his hands and feet.

MASQUERADE HEADDRESS of wood, pigment, wire, fabric, tinsel, fringe, ribbon, metal, 91.5 x 68.6 x 55.8 centimeters, Freetown, Sierra Leone, circa 1970s. MASQUERADE HEADDRESS of wood, pigment, wire, fabric, tinsel mirrors, fringe, ribbon, metal, 64.7 x 53.3 x 16.73 centimeters, Freetown, Sierra Leone, circa 1970s. MASQUERADE HEADDRESS of wood, pigment, wire, fabric, tinsel, fringe, ribbon, metal, 91.5 x 68.6 x 55.8 centimeters, Freetown, Sierra Leone, circa 1970s.

 

      Get Inspired!

 
 

Gassia Armenian is Curatorial and Research Associate and Editorial Assistant at the Fowler Museum at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she conducts collections and database research to facilitate curatorial and scholarly endeavors and manages various aspects of planning and organizing museum exhibitions. Prior to her work at the Fowler Museum, Armenian was a Consultant-Project Coordinator at the US Agency for International Development—for Junior Achievement of Armenia where she developed and implemented civics-education training programs and teaching methodologies for principals and teachers from the Republic of Armenia in the United States and in Armenia. In this issue, she writes about the Fowler’s exhibition on Sierra Leone headdresses.

The Tucson Shows 2017 Volume 39.3

PETER VAN DE WIJNGAART, FLOOR KASPARS, ROBERT WILLIAMS, BERNIE LAWITZ, AND HIS DAUGHTER HANNAH LAWITZ at the Silk Road Gem & Jewelry Show off of Grant Road, in the former Grant Inn, now the Grand Luxe Hotel and Resort. Van de Wijngaart and Kaspars are Dutch bead lovers who visit Tucson every year. Lawitz is the former owner of recently closed Beads Galore. Photographs by Robert K. Liu and Patrick R. Benesh-Liu.

PETER VAN DE WIJNGAART, FLOOR KASPARS, ROBERT WILLIAMS, BERNIE LAWITZ, AND HIS DAUGHTER HANNAH LAWITZ at the Silk Road Gem & Jewelry Show off of Grant Road, in the former Grant Inn, now the Grand Luxe Hotel and Resort. Van de Wijngaart and Kaspars are Dutch bead lovers who visit Tucson every year. Lawitz is the former owner of recently closed Beads Galore. Photographs by Robert K. Liu and Patrick R. Benesh-Liu.

There is a thrill to treasure-hunting that transcends the humdrum routine of everyday life. It is the feeling that comes from encountering the unknown, and even more alluringly, the ability to somehow take that home with you.

      There exists a place where that is possible. It is called the Tucson Gem & Mineral Show, which is somewhat of a misnomer in that instead of being one, singular show, it is more like if one occupied a small city with tents, pop-up tables, booths, and mini-vans. During the months of January and February, Tucson undergoes just such a transformation. Roughly fifty shows, fairs and festivals spring up around the city, some featuring just a dozen exhibitors, others hosting hundreds of vendors. It is not just gems and minerals that are for sale. Tribal and ethnographic art, ancient artifacts, crafting tools and supplies, hand-blown glass beads, jewelry, clothing, baskets, purses, backpacks, fossils, giant sculptures—it really is easier to list what you will not find at the Tucson Shows. Which is to say you can find almost everything there.

To Read the Full Article

 
 

Patrick R. Benesh-Liu is Associate Editor of Ornament and continues to find time to enjoy craft in between writing, travel and tech support. This January he and Robert travel to Tucson to visit the Gem & Mineral Show, where they will see old friends, make new ones, and cover all the wonders of that worldly bazaar. In this issue he describes one small corner of the vast market, and encourages readers to indulge in their inner explorer and visit the show themselves. As Ornament’s reporter, he also provides a zesty compilation of the latest news in craft, where you can find out what is happening with art to wear in the global neighborhood.

Vlisco. African Fashion Volume 39.3

African Fashion
On A Global Stage

We tend to talk about “globalization” as though it were a relatively recent development in our history. Particularly in relation to the textile industry, it is also seen (often justifiably) as an exploitative process aimed at producing cheap wearable goods for mass consumption in the West. The reality, of course, is that it is older and more complex than we imagine and can sometimes involve connections forged over many decades among far-flung cultures, leading to creative collaborations that reflect both global networks and local and regional innovations.

      A case in point is Vlisco, the Dutch company whose vibrant textiles, based on Indonesian batik wax-resist techniques for printing color on cotton cloth, have for a century and a half enjoyed enormous popularity throughout West Africa. In the hands of local dressmakers, these Dutch Wax (or Wax Hollandaise) prints are transformed into gorgeously designed garments that reflect the tastes, traditions and trends of the region’s various cultures.

A generous sampling of the products of this intercontinental collaboration can be found in “Vlisco: African Fashion on a Global Stage,” on view at the Philadelphia Museum of Art through January 22, 2017. The show is a key component of “Creative Africa,” a suite of exhibitions at the museum surveying African art across multiple mediums, including painting, sculpture, photography, architecture, and textiles, with an emphasis on the contemporary.

 

To Read The Full Article

 
 

David Updike is a writer and editor based in Philadelphia. A regular contributor to Ornament, he most recently previewed the 2016 Philadelphia Museum of Art Craft Show. In these pages, he reviews “Vlisco: African Fashion on a Global Stage,” an exhibition at the Philadelphia Museum of Art that showcases the creative synergy of West African fashion designers crafting beautiful formal wear from “Dutch Wax” printed textiles. Next up in Ornament is Updike’s feature article on jeweler Barbara Heinrich from Pittsford, New York.

Sandy Swirnoff Volume 39.3

Sandy Swirnoff

Knotted Fiber Jewelry

FRIDA of nylon thread, Tibetan coral, glass seed beads, Indonesian silver beads, 2006. Collection of Grace Stewart. Photographs by Katie Gardner, courtesy of Mingei International Museum.

Sandy Swirnoff creates necklaces of intricately knotted nylon thread in colorful hues, embedding them with beads of all kinds, and sometimes with rescued shards of Art Nouveau glass. Thirty of these unique and wearable works of art are on view in Sandy Swirnoff—Knotted Fiber Jewelry, an exhibition presented by Mingei International Museum in San Diego, from January 14 to June 4, 2017. Swirnoff’s knotting process is a spontaneous style of macramé. According to the artist, “The best way to create free-form knotting is to watch carefully which direction the cords naturally want to go, to see if there is a pattern forming, a new shape wanting to appear, or some connection between areas that is graceful and has movement.”

 

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Christine Knoke Hietbrink is Director of Exhibitions and Chief Curator at Mingei International Museum in San Diego, California’s Balboa Park, which she joined in June 2010. Her most recent curatorial projects include “Sandy Swirnoff: Knotted Fiber Jewelry,” “American and European Folk Art from the Permanent Collection” and “Black Dolls from the Collection of Deborah Neff.” Knoke holds a BA in Art History from the University of California, Los Angeles, and an MA in Art History and Museum Studies from University of Southern California.

Philadelphia Museum of Art Craft Show Volume 39.2

Philadelphia Museum of Art Craft Show 2016


Philadelphia Museum of Art Craft Show, Pennsylvania Convention Center, November 10 - 13, 2016. Visit pmacraftshow.org for more information.

CHRISTINA AND MICHAEL ADCOCK

Each November, Philadelphia becomes the epicenter of the nation’s craft world for four exhilarating days known as the Philadelphia Museum of Art Craft Show, as hundreds of artists and thousands of enthusiastic and discerning viewers flock to the city to immerse themselves in the best that American craft has to offer.

      This year marks the fortieth anniversary of the PMA Craft Show, and it promises to be a landmark exhibit. From more than a thousand applicants, the five jurors have selected one hundred ninety-five artists from thirty-four states. On display will be work representing every major craft medium, including baskets, jewelry (precious and semiprecious), metal, glass, fiber (wearable and decorative), leather, wood, furniture, paper, ceramics, and mixed-media creations. A separate category for “Emerging Artists” helps relative newcomers bring their work to a wider audience. Similarly, the special “Craft-U” section allows students and recent alumni from Temple University’s Tyler School of Art, the Moore College of Art and Design, Kutztown University, and Savannah College of Art and Design to display and sell their work at one of the country’s premier venues for fine crafts.

PING WU

      The Craft Show is organized and presented each year by the Women’s Committee of the Philadelphia Museum of Art as a major fundraising event for the institution. Last year’s show generated around $845,000, and since the first show in 1977 more than $11.7 million in proceeds have been raised to fund every aspect of the museum’s mission, including education, acquisitions, exhibitions, programs, and renovations. As the first retail craft show to be organized by volunteers for the benefit of a nonprofit organization, the PMA Craft Show has become a highly successful model for others to follow. In the process, it has also done much to promote contemporary American craft.

Regular attendees will find many familiar faces in this year’s line-up, including ceramicists Cliff Lee and Bennett Bean; jewelrymakers Namu Cho, Rebecca Myers, and Steven Ford and David Forlano; fiber artists Elyse Allen, Andrea Handy, and Ping Wu (winner of last year’s Ornament Award for Excellence in Art to Wear); basketmakers Christine and Michael Adcock; and mixed-media artists Roberta and David Williamson, who will be participating in their thirty-fifth PMA Craft Show!

The show’s organizers, however, are proud to point out that more than a quarter of this year’s entrants are first-time exhibitors, a testament to the rising generation of skilled artisans. “This year we will have fifty new artists,” said Gwen Goodwill Bianchi, chair of the 2016 Craft Show. “It’s very exciting to have so much new work as we celebrate the show’s fortieth anniversary! That keeps contemporary craft fresh and moving forward.” Bianchi has been a member of the Craft Show Committee for ten years, and a member of the Women’s Committee for the past eight years, but this is her first time chairing the show. “The biggest surprise has been how the younger, tech-savvy generation continues to embrace the relevance and importance of handmade work,” she said. 

CLIFF LEE

      Juror Glenn Adamson, a respected author, curator and theorist of contemporary art and former director of the Museum of Arts and Design in New York, was similarly encouraged about the future of craft in America. “I was surprised by the high quality of entrants in the ‘Emerging Artists’ category,” he told me. “Though craft is, as they say, ‘long to learn,’ there were many artists who had clearly hit the ground running and had a lot of mastery already.” Adamson notes that while technology has had an impact on these younger artists, its mark is seen more in the aesthetics of the works than in the processes employed in making them. “Certainly you can see the influence of digital technology here and there, not so much in the techniques used (which remain mainly traditional) but in the style of imagery.”

Fellow juror Laura Mays, an Irish-born furniture designer and maker now living in California where she directs the Fine Woodworking program at the College of the Redwoods in Fort Bragg, also noted the (perhaps ironic) influence of digital technologies on the aesthetics of handcrafted art. She sees “a move away from polychromatic patternmaking and exuberant surface, towards a clean-lined, materials-driven, neutral palette, very similar to a design-led approach. Maybe it’s the Apple influence—small radius corners, materials left unadorned though polished, visually tidy.” While acknowledging that “the entrants wish to be selected to show their work for sale,” she adds: “It really struck home that human beings are very driven towards the manipulation of material and to learn and exhibit manual and mental skill... I had a very palpable sense that the energy and commitment that the craftspeople put in is not commercially driven.”

ALEKSANDRA VALI

     Among the ten “Emerging Artists” selected for this year’s show is jewelrymaker Aleksandra Vali. Now based in Geneva, Illinois, a western suburb of Chicago, Vali was trained as a sculptor and ceramicist in Russia and exhibited widely in her native country and abroad. After moving to the United States, she shifted her focus to metalsmithing and jewelry. “My work with clay has definitely affected my current works,” she said. “For me, metal provides a unique opportunity to create unusual, stylish pieces with fine details and very sharp and clear lines and shapes, something I was unable to do in ceramics.”

Vali’s training as a sculptor is evident in the Calendar from Atlantis/Bells series. These conical constructions of oxidized silver, each about four inches high, feature pitted and grooved surfaces to which the artist adds rune-like symbols and other motifs in electroplated twenty-four karat gold. As the title implies, the overall effect is one of an exquisitely preserved archaeological artifact recovered from an ancient civilization. (Vali notes that although each “bell” contains a clapper and is thus technically functional, they are not necessarily designed to produce a pleasing sound.) Her fascination with the material culture of the past also drives the Measures of Value collection, sleekly modern pendants whose designs incorporate antique elements, including Chinese coins, watchmakers’ tools and mini-calipers, in a clever play on the overlapping objective and subjective meanings that accrue to “value.”

MELODIE GRACE

      Other “Emerging Artists” this year include ceramicist Melodie Grace of Nashville, Tennessee, who, according to the artist’s statement, combines “wheel-thrown, handcarved and etched elements with both traditional and naked raku” to create pots whose textures often evoke natural materials such as pine cones. The surfaces of many of her vessels feature sharply defined images of trees, blossoms, leaves, and birds whose colors are created exclusively by smoke during the firing process.

ROBERT COBY

      Glass artist Robert Coby of Cleveland, Ohio, similarly evokes landscape in his handblown and carved vessels. His Topography series, for example, features egg-shaped vessels of molten glass in various hues, into whose surfaces the artist etches intricate patterns of concentric lines resembling the elevation markings on topographical maps. Coby then carves away portions, creating crevasse-like openings bounded by serrated crystalline edges, beneath which lie the exposed luminous interior surfaces. One could easily imagine each vessel as a globe-egg that incubated some fantastical creature, which has now hatched and left behind its multicolored shell for us to admire.

Another artist who evokes the fantastic in his work is first-time exhibitor David Winigrad of Penn Valley, Pennsylvania, who specializes in the wind-activated kinetic sculptures known as “whirligigs.” Winigrad earned a BFA in two-dimensional design from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh and spent three decades working in advertising. His mother, Etta Winigrad, is a world-renowned ceramic sculptor, but David told me that he came to kinetic sculpture “almost by happenstance” when he got some woodworking tools from his brother and began experimenting.

“I was first drawn to traditional folk-art whirligigs by virtue of their very unlikeliness as objects of art,” he said. “Whirligigs, in essence, are machines.” As such, they share much in common with their more practical cousins such as combustion engines and electric motors, including the crankshafts, cams, pistons, and rotors that translate energy into motion. In this case, however, the driving force is wind, adding an element of chance to the machine’s performance. “It’s the mercurial nature of wind that makes the whirligig so captivating,” said Winigrad. “Like a marionette, they will suddenly come to life, spin madly, and then, just as suddenly, come to rest.”

DAVID WINIGRAD


      Winigrad’s inspiration for each whirligig “almost always comes from the wood. I gravitate to burls specifically, the deformed growths found on various species of trees... Each burl has a unique grain pattern and often contains voids, bark, spiky caps, and live edges.” These irregular features allow him “to contrast the eccentricities of the burl with the precise geometries I impose on the overall shape.” Along with the wooden elements, which range from ebony, maple, cherry, and walnut to osage orange and wild almond, he incorporates jade, stones, bone, feathers, crystals, coral, fossils, and other materials into these truly mixed-media creations.

EBEN BLANEY

      “My creative impetus is to amaze and delight the viewer through the variety of rotational movement and the beauty inherent in the materials,” explained Winigrad. “I also encourage people to interact with the whirligig through touch. In an incomprehensibly complex hi-tech world, viewers are able to fully understand how each whirligig works and enjoy the simple pleasure that comes with that realization.”

Participating in his second PMA Craft Show is Eben Blaney of Edgecomb, Maine, who has been making custom furniture for twenty years in the studio he built for himself in this small coastal town. Blaney, whose father was a boat-builder in nearby Boothbay Harbor, “resisted being a woodworker, anything to do with wood, for a long time,” he related to me during a studio visit in late August. After attending Hofstra University and the Portland School of Art (now the Maine College of Art), he went through a “soul-searching time” during which he “rolled around a lot.” This he did in a very literal way—by riding a bike all the way across the country. Eventually Blaney both found his way back home and embraced woodworking as his medium. The bike now hangs from the ceiling of the workshop, a reminder of his earlier nomadic life. He and his wife, a massage therapist, have their living quarters below the workshop, and she has a separate studio for her business nearby.

REBECCA MYERS

      Blaney’s first PMA Craft Show outing, in 2014, was “my best show ever, it was incredibly heartening,” he told me. He was particularly impressed by the “caliber of everybody else there,” but also by the sophistication of the viewers. “Philadelphia is a really well-educated population, in terms of furniture. They know what they’re looking for.” The city does indeed have a long historical connection to fine furniture-making, stretching from Colonial times through to more modern figures such as Wharton Esherick (1887–1970), a key inspiration for the resurgence of the craft following World War II. Echoes of Esherick’s aesthetic sensibility can be seen in many of Blaney’s elegant pieces, which combine the crisp geometries of mid-century modern design with a deep respect for the organic qualities of the materials.

An example is his Cormorant, a tall, slim hall table fashioned from walnut and ebonized tiger maple. “This felt very bird-like to me from the beginning,” he said. “It’s one of my favorite pieces because I was able to make it thinner than what you’re used to seeing.” On the in-progress version he showed me in the studio, the smooth, black surface of the elliptical tabletop was interrupted by the irregular edges of a knothole, a reminder of its origin in nature. Like many of Blaney’s pieces, the Cormorant also features exposed mortise-and-tenon joints. “I like to have some evidence that it was done by hand,” he said.

Nature has always been a primary inspiration for jewelrymaker Rebecca Myers of Baltimore, whose work features forms derived from seedpods, branches, flowers, and bees, among other motifs. “Most recently I’ve been working on an animal print collection of jewelry,” she told me in early September. “It’s made with layers of metals pierced to achieve the leopard and zebra patterns.”

Myers has done the PMA Craft Show “a handful of times” during her twenty-plus years as a jewelry designer and maker. “It’s always been a beautiful show and one of the most difficult to jury into,” she said. For Myers, who grew up in the Philadelphia suburbs and attended Temple University’s Tyler School of Art, it is also something of a homecoming. “I have clients, family, teachers, and friends that I love visiting with at the show. Philadelphia is also such a great art and craft city. The public art is terrific. There’s a high interest due to the abundance of local art schools and museums.”

Like many of the participants, Myers finds hope for the future in an event that brings so many people together around the notion of putting beauty and creativity at the center of our everyday lives. “I think shows like the PMA Craft Show are cultural touchstones,” she said. “It’s so important to continue to educate a new generation of students and possible future collectors about incorporating art and craft into their lives. It’s very doable. To be an art collector you don’t need to go to a Sotheby’s auction. You can start at a show like PMA.” 

ROBERTA AND DAVID WILLIAMSON, BENNETT BEAN AND STEVE FORD AND DAVID FORLANO

 

      Get Inspired!

 
 

David Updike is an editor and writer living in Philadelphia. A regular contributor to Ornament, he most recently reviewed the “Immortal Beauty” exhibition of garments and textiles from Drexel University’s Robert and Penny Fox Historic Costume Collection. In this issue, he previews the 2016 Philadelphia Museum of Art Contemporary Craft Show, which celebrates its fortieth anniversary this year, and found in the process encouraging evidence for the continued relevance of fine, handcrafted objects in our increasingly digitized world. Updike has, in addition, contributed articles on jewelry artists Rebecca Myers, Namu Cho and Michael Manthey in past issues. 

David Freda Volume 39.2

THREE TENORS BROOCH of Zygo Pink/Zygopetalum, Buttercup White/Trichoglottis briachiata hybrid and Epidendrum Pacific Sunsplash orchids; cold-joined and hollowcast, made 2008; enameled twenty karat gold, set with five diamonds, 8.9 centimeters (cm) long, weighing 91.1 grams. The intricate enameling and fabrication process is similar to that described for the butterfly brooch in this article, in contrast to erroneous accounts stating that the actual orchids were dipped into wax. Since 2002, Freda has made a series of about fifty orchid brooches for Tiffany & Company (Jazzar and Nelson 2015). In the 2008/2009 Tiffany catalog, this orchid brooch was priced at forty-five thousand dollars. Private Collection. Photograph by David Behl. 

How do you look at a piece of art, or for our readers, an artist-made piece of jewelry? Does your reaction differ if you base your opinion on merely what you see, or does knowing about the underlying materials and processes affect your reaction? Most of us decide quickly if we like or dislike something, even if we have the background knowledge to engage in more deliberate consideration. This may occur even during the judging of a competition or a show, although one would certainly then further appraise the design, crafting and other relevant factors before arriving at a final decision.

      After looking critically at jewelry of all types for over four decades, I am still shocked when what I thought I knew differs from reality, as with the case of Pat Tseng’s fiber and stone jewelry (Liu 2015). Similarly, even though I have known David Freda since at least 1981, (he won the 1984 Ornament competition Juror’s award by Lloyd Herman [a jewel box/neckpiece with black rat snake eggs and hatchlings, along with the mother snake]), had attended one of his moldmaking workshops, and photographed his earlier work, my recent studio visit with him revealed a complexity, intricacy and difficulty of execution in his work that was well beyond what I knew. 

DAVID FREDA AND TRISH MCALEER’S SECOND FLOOR STUDIO, wonderfully flooded by light, partially blocked by removable blue window panels. Visible are enamel powder vials on tabletop (each with fired samples on lids), kilns, vacuum caster, metal melter, wax injector and metalworking tools, as well as biological study specimens and live plants, mostly orchids. Cabinets hold projects in progress. Photographs by Robert K. Liu/Ornament Magazine, except where noted.

DAVID FREDA AND TRISH MCALEER’S SECOND FLOOR STUDIO, wonderfully flooded by light, partially blocked by removable blue window panels. Visible are enamel powder vials on tabletop (each with fired samples on lids), kilns, vacuum caster, metal melter, wax injector and metalworking tools, as well as biological study specimens and live plants, mostly orchids. Cabinets hold projects in progress. Photographs by Robert K. Liu/Ornament Magazine, except where noted.

DAVID FREDA

DAVID FREDA

      With my background training and research as an ethologist who studied fish behavior, Freda and I share common interests. In 1986, I traded a long run of Copeia, the leading journal for ichthyologists and herpetologists, for an enameled pupfish, which is still in progress due to the challenge of this project (to get the correct color of a breeding male pupfish, Freda went to Salt Creek in Death Valley to photograph them). His grandfather was a jeweler and Freda still has his riveting hammer. His father was a skilled machinist, so he acquired much technical knowledge working summers with him. He is perhaps the metalsmith with the most knowledge of nature and easily qualifies as a true naturalist jeweler. Freda has extensive working experience as a wildlife illustrator, raptor bird bander, falconer, taxidermist, and past curator of a wildlife center, as well as certified scuba diver, technical rock climber and avid mountain biker. Any visitor to the home of Freda and his partner Trish McAleer, also a metalsmith, cannot help but be aware of his deep interests in nature, which she shares. A full scale and accurately detailed replica of a Latimeria coelacanth hangs on a wall, something rarely even seen in a museum. A cat, two Siberian huskies and some walking stick insects share their home, along with numerous plants (especially orchids) and outdoor beehives.

Past and contemporary depictions of nature, whether botanical or zoological, were often caricatures of the actual plant or animal, frequently overly ornamented with jewels. G. Paulding Farnham’s orchid brooches made for Tiffany in the late 1800s-early 1900s were a mix of naturalistic blooms with excessive gemstone-set floral components and stems, although at least one example was devoid of gemstones. The Farnham orchid brooches may have been partly electroplated, which may be the basis for internetstatements about the orchid blooms being dipped in wax, as electroplating can involve wax. Lalique was the least susceptible to this tendency of overusing precious stones, and set only a few gems, although his enameled plants and animals were more impressionistic than realistic. 

STUDY OF NORTHERN BLACK RAT SNAKE NECKLACE, closeup showing eggs and hatchlings, of enamel over fine silver, with gold jumprings and Czech glass beads. Multiples of this necklace have been made from 1984 to 2000, his only limited production design; this necklace is 24.1 centimeters long, with eggs 2.7 cm each. The late Barbara Rockefeller owned the first snake egg and hatchling necklace made by Freda. Mobilia Gallery Collection. 

      For someone like Freda, who both loves nature and intimately knows and appreciates the anatomy of plants and animals, it would be almost a sacrilege not to replicate them fully and accurately. When he talks about his jewelry depicting members of the natural world, he states it is “pretty sacred, making these things.” I think his pride would not permit him to make replicas of nature that did not satisfy his high standards. When you couple this commitment to his superb technical prowess, it is easy to understand his devotion to the process of making a piece, from which he certainly gets his high. If one understands the technical and engineering challenges involved in each step of his fabrication process, one can begin to also realize the satisfaction that must reward the maker when making progress with such difficult procedures. His jewelry usually takes months to complete, so daily positive feedback is vital. This passion no doubt holds for many craftspeople when producing art in their studios; many remark that time often appears suspended, like being in a zen state.

As an undergraduate at University of Wisconsin, Whitewater, he studied with metalsmith Marcia Lewis, at a time when he was making leather falcon hoods. His graduate studies were at State University of New York, New Paltz, with Bob Ebendorf and Kurt Matzdorf, during 1980-1983, when Freda experimented with enameling on aluminum, as seen on the example on page 49. In the 1990s a Cooper-Hewitt exhibition of the great French master Lalique further pushed his talents toward enameling. About the time Freda won Rio Grande’s 2002 award for his stag beetle necklace, he was approached by Tiffany and Company to make enameled orchid brooches in gold. Up to then, he had only enameled on aluminum and silver; using the Rio Grande award to buy gold, it took
him a year of experimenting before he was ready to start producing the gold orchids, as it is much harder to enamel gold than silver, in part due to the alloys in gold (Fabergé enameled on silver but Lalique used gold, although he did use aluminum for structural elements of his jewelry, Harrison et al. 2008).

CABINET TOP WITH BUTTERFLY BROOCHES IN PROGRESS, along with color photocopies and photographs of the individual species. The photocopies of the actual wings are part of the documentation process that Freda follows to ensure accuracy of the intricate mosaic enameling on his butterfly brooches. The far left piece in progress is that of a moth. Photograph by David Freda.

      Freda took about a year to work out the molding of the orchids, their hollow core casting and enameling. The blooming orchids, or other specimens to be cast, are actually dissected into components, which then have silicon rubber compounds poured around them to make two part molds, from which the hollow waxes are made by injecting molten wax into the molds. He achieves hollow waxes by a clever process of blowing into the mold after the outer layer of the wax has set, with the force of the air from his mouth expelling the still molten portions of the wax from the mold. Such waxes are what enables him to do hollow casting. Because of the small spaces involved in his casts, he needs to use syringes to place the investment within the tiny apertures of the hollow waxes, as well as filling other spaces and gaps inside the investment flask used for lost-wax casting. If his casts were solid metal, the varying coefficient of expansion (COE) of the metal and the enamel could result in cracking or crazing of the enamel, similar to what happens when one attempts to work with glass of different COE. Since the butterfly wings of his brooches are solid but very thin, such problems do not occur when they are enameled. Additional factors in favor of hollow casting are the need for the jewelry to be as light as possible when worn, yet be strong enough to bear the stress of being worn, and that enamel looks better on hollow metal.

WESTERN TIGER SWALLOWTAIL BROOCH IN PROGRESS, with lower wings enameled, upper still bare gold, all cold-joined, 9.3 cm wingspan; actual butterfly was collected in southern California. Compare this to experimental work on facing page, of another swallowtail butterfly. His enameled jewelry is twenty karat gold, but findings are eighteen karat.

      To be able to make good molds and the requisite air venting, waxes, their sprueing, investing, burnout, and casting all demand a high level of skill, luck and magic, although proper utilization of the vacuum in mold making, investment preparation and metal casting are all critical to success. Since Freda does all these steps himself, it is a given there are strict standards of control and quality in his artwork. While these fabrication procedures are difficult and time consuming, it is his enameling that is awe-inspiring. Since I have had a long interest in insect jewelry (Kuehn 2003; Liu 1998, 2003), I am aware that none of the historic or contemporary interpretations of insects begin to approach Freda’s representations in accuracy of anatomy or coloration, both vital in characterization of such animals.

PROCESS FOR MAKING DANIS DANIS BUTTERFLY BROOCHES; the actual Danis butterflies are native to Australia and New Guinea. The finished brooch, of twenty, eighteen karat gold and platinum, has a wingspan of 5.7 cm, weighs about twenty-nine grams and has two marquise-set diamonds on the platinum antenna and thirty pavé-set diamonds in the abdomen. Due to the intricacy of the processes in the fabrication of these brooches, only some of the enameling and assembly steps are shown and described. 1 shows enlarged color photocopies of the wings, the lower wings partially enameled, and enameled gold cutouts with gold granules, and thin gold strips with white enamel, to be placed and fired onto wing. 2 shows the photocopies, lower wing with additional enameled elements, bare gold upper wings and actual butterfly wings on the plex block to the right. The wings and body have been scaled up from the real specimen. 3 Mirrored stencils for the turquoise decorations on the upper wing, placed onto the bare gold. 4 Upper wings now enameled in black/white, with wing areas ground to bare metal for placement of counter-enameled turquoise wing pattern pieces, shaped like the stencils. 5 Both wings cold-joined to temporary body, and a few of the turquoise decorations in place. 6 Wings completely enameled, with finished abdomen and wax components of the body in place. 7, 8 Obverse/reverse of finished Danis danis brooch, laser-welded and cold-joined, after three months work. All screws have tube-set diamonds on top.
Process photographs by David Freda except 7, 8 by Robert K. Liu/Ornament. 

      Just looking at part of the processes involved in his enameling of butterfly wings provides a good indication of the complexity of his techniques in this media, which Freda terms “mosaic enameling”. Besides the overall patterns of the upper and lower wings, which are based on color photocopies of the actual wings, smaller, contrasting spots of color are often separate cutouts of gold sheet, copied from precise stencils. These tiny pieces, some only millimeters long, are adhered onto wires protruding from a wire trivet, using his own adhesive mix of Klyr-Fyr, water lily root and saliva (the latter is also used by Mauritanian women bead artists when they wetpack glasspowder for Kiffa beads). Two hundred grit enamel, either Ninomiya or old Thompson leaded enamels are sifted onto these pieces of metal, then fired briefly at well-controlled temperatures for up to ten times, with the color checked against the actual specimen depicted (Gans 2003). These fired pieces are placed in precise patterns on the wings, often after the underlying enamel has been ground off to expose the gold. These steps are repeated until obverse and reverse sides of the wings are fully patterned accurately. Fabrication of a butterfly brooch takes three months of constant work.

FREDA’S JEWELRY BENCH, with an orchid brooch project in progress. All the rotary tool bits are neatly laid out in rows on gray felt, as well as his hand tools. All parts are in small containers. Visible to left is casting and kiln equipment, plants and biological specimens.

      Freda sets gemstones, like diamonds, into the platinum body and antenna of his butterflies, as well as gold granules onto the wings. These embellishments add to the perceived and real value of a piece, possibly at the request of the firm or individual commissioning the piece. While his jewelry is not really priced according to the value of the precious metal and gemstone content, they are at the top end of contemporary artist-made ornaments. Nowadays, the clients are often from China, Japan or the Middle East. One of his older orchid brooches sold at auction for ninety-four thousand dollars, with a beginning bid of thirty-four thousand; this hammer price is rare for living jewelers.

While Freda is still young and in the prime of health, he has already attained a level of achievement that future jewelry historians might regard as somewhat reminiscent of Lalique and Blaschka, the Bohemian father and son team of the nineteenth, early twentieth century who made astounding painted botanical and marine invertebrates in glass, including orchids. Freda’s vast practical knowledge of biology, derived often from living plants and animals, and his largely self-developed metalsmithing and enameling skills have undoubtedly been the foundations of his success, along with a dogged determination at solving problems. An admitted dyslectic, he appears to have compensated by arranging his studio environment so neatly and logically as to fit his particular way of working.

BRAZILIAN RED LAND CRAB AND HEAD OF BLACK INDONESIAN RAT SNAKE, both hollowcast, respectively of gold and fine silver, crab 7.0 cm wide; entire snake was thirteen feet or over 396 cm long. The crab consists of carapace, legs and claws, all cast separately, then cold-joined. Eventually, both will be enameled. 

      David Freda is very much a jeweler in transition, now that he will concentrate more on selling to private clients or collectors. Since his pieces are so time-consuming, he needs time to build up an inventory. With his inquisitive and inventive mind, it is hard to predict how his work might change, especially with his intense fascination of nature and willingness to challenge himself even more, especially if there were less restraint on his artistic license.

 

      Get Inspired!

 
 

Robert K. Liu is Coeditor of Ornament and for many years its in-house photographer. His recent book, The Photography of Personal Adornment, covers forty plus years of shooting jewelry, clothing and events related to wearable art, both in and out of the Ornament studio. Recently he has been teaching one-on-one photography lessons at our offices, as well as teaching workshops on bamboo jewelry. In this issue Liu writes about David Freda, who is as much a naturalist as he is a superb enamelist and jeweler. His techniques are among the most complex the author has seen in over four decades of writing about jewelry.

Gallery Lulo Volume 39.2

The jewelry art gallery is a curated space where both environment and the objects on display are carefully cultivated to create a narrative atmosphere. It is the frame, the lens, which allows visitors to experience the work as parts of a great visual novel, rather than a chaotic array of disparate elements. This is the true beauty of an art gallery, beyond simply expressing the tastes of its owners. At Gallery Lulo in Healdsburg, this sweet spot of an impressive collection, with a love for the experience, has been achieved through the union of European minimalism with Californian casualness.

      Healdsburg itself is one of those interesting experiments in suburban renewal, a gentrified town whose Main Street is made up almost in its entirety of boutique shops and artisanal food restaurants. The density of start-ups is intense, with only a few signs of Healdsburg’s previous life poking out from underneath, such as an old Mexican family restaurant on one of its street corners.

Lulo is owned in a partnership by glass artist Karen Gilbert and Danish immigrant Katrina Schjerbeck. The two co-owners met through a mutual friend who attended the American Craft Council shows. Katrina had been assisting at her friend’s booth, and they decided to visit Karen in Healdsburg. It was a serendipitous moment; Katrina and her husband had been looking for a new place to live, and Healdsburg was a perfect match.

A multimedia exhibition arena, Gilbert and Schjerbeck include paintings, ceramics and other artforms seemingly not as additional wares, but as accents to the ambience which they are fostering. Used sparingly, they augment and frame the jewelry, which is good as the pieces and artists chosen for Lulo’s collection are delicate, tactile and sensitive. Anything more would be overwhelming, yet the gallery proprietors show sound presence of mind in ensuring that the jewelry stands out first and foremost.

RAW RUBY AND GOLD BROOCH by Petra Class. ENAMEL BROOCH WITH BEADED GLASS AND GARNETS by Karen Gilbert. TAGLIATELLE BRASS RING by Mia Hebib.

      White glass-covered cases contain numerous specimens, with multiple drawers that roll out smoothly on well-oiled mechanisms. The work itself is from jewelers around the globe. Though the gallery does not restrict itself to artists known for having a minimalist aesthetic, the pieces they sell tend to be along those lines.

As an example, take the bold gemstone jewelry of Petra Class. Class’s focus is her lapidary work, where she often uses outlandish segments of precious and semiprecious stones encased in gold. Instead of using small rubies as accents in a ring or bracelet, she uses a whole flat sheet of ruby for a brooch. The ruby is both canvas and painting, where Class lets the grain of the raw stone become the visual palette across which the eyes dance. While that piece is representative of her oeuvre, she also has more understated jewelry, where a series of gold-encapsulated aquamarines or emeralds, linked by chain, become a bangle.

There are a number of jewelers whose works might not be found at other galleries, making this a treasure for those seeking something simple and sleek. Gilbert and Schjerbeck select an international representation of artists who often tend towards the abstract, with minimal use of gemstones. Such can be seen in the jewelry of Mia Hebib, a Bosnian-Croat who came to the United States to study at the Savannah College of Art & Design. She utilizes brass, polished and patinaed, as well as occasionally other metals, and from it derives undulating bands that warp and wend their way around each other. 

Her series entitled The Golden Years makes use of the gleaming polished surface to reflect one’s surroundings, which become part of the visual presentation of the piece. They arrive at that certain point of grace where a thing exhibits complicated attributes without becoming overwrought; like liquid sculpture in motion. For a certain type of person, they are exquisite. 

JEWELRY BY TZURI GUETA AND NAOMI MCINTOSH. Gueta creates jewelry from silicone-Injected lace. Mcintosh uses CAD to create designs on a sheet of wood, which she then removes via laser-cutting. Photograph by Robert K. Liu/Ornament Magazine.

Naomi Mcintosh’s use of wood in jewelry brings together technology and aesthetic into a razor’s edge balance. Mcintosh takes sheets of wood and then uses CAD and hand-drawn shapes to create her little repetitive forms, which she then excises from the sheet through laser-cutting. Strung on a dual strand of elastic to create tension, the asymmetric pieces spiral around each other in an endless reverberation. It is mesmerizing, and easy to wear: light, flexible and visibly bold.

“We love to see materials used in ways that speak to the tradition of the handmade, but has an aesthetic expression that makes the work relevant in the world of design and art—so a balance of the two, however abstract this may seem, is I believe what defines the pieces we are drawn to.” Schjerbeck explains.

KATRINA SCHJERBECK AND KAREN GILBERT. 

KATRINA SCHJERBECK AND KAREN GILBERT. 

The two gallery owners have learned from their interactions with customers, which has led to a subtle shift in the pieces they sell. “Having had the gallery in Healdsburg and understanding our audience and clients has also taken us in a direction that is lighter in heart —more color, movement, wear ability—than darker, larger conceptual pieces,” is how Schjerbeck reminisces on the topic. The impact of the client on the creative dynamic is always a complicated one of give and take.

Being a business goes beyond the customer to being part of the community. Healdsburg’s gentrification, while it has brought in a lot of money, also has significantly changed its character. While Lulo is a fairly new addition, Gilbert and Schjerbeck are comfortable with the knowledge that they are contributing to the town’s traditional values.

“The community is appreciative that a space exists which extends the idea of its cultural integrity,” Schjerbeck remarks. “In light of the wealth which has recently come to Healdsburg on a much larger scale, sustainable communal values are extremely important to the town. We maintain a family business which features regional artists, alongside challenging and avant-garde work—a business inclusive to both locals and tourists and outside the mainstream norm in wine country.”

Gilbert is in the unique position of being a jeweler and glassmaker in addition to her gallery duties, with her work also carried by Lulo. Saddling both realms requires a delicate balancing act which she finds rewarding. “I work in my studio on weekends and here and there during the week,” she muses. “I am in the gallery a couple times a week and at SkLO (her glassmaking company) for day to day operations. It is a busy schedule but it feeds my creativity.”

EXHIBITION ROOM ADJACENT TO GALLERY LULO’S ENTRANCE, with cases containing jewelry. Photograph by Adza Aubry.

As an artist, and in running her own design firm, Gilbert has the advantage of being continually exposed to new work, making her a headhunter of sorts for Lulo. “I have the privilege of working in several fields and it gives me insight into what is happening in the art world and the design world,” Gilbert explains. “With SkLO I am traveling around the country and looking at innovative furniture, lighting and accessories. I think a lot about the choices people make to what they want in their home and what is worthy of buying and living with. This helps keep us aware of the work we show in a greater context.”

Good galleries provide an essential function to the dissemination of art. A monolithic group, viewed from the outside, is impenetrable; in this case, any branch of craft media. Sifting through hundreds of artists is a delightful process, but one that few truly have the patience or drive to achieve. A gallery is not just a place to purchase works of beauty; it is an aesthetic collection steered by the sensibility of its curators. To wit, it is a living, breathing ecosystem of art. It is in this vital purpose that Gallery Lulo flourishes, in all its distinct character.

Visit gallerylulo.com for more information on the Gallery. Lulo exhibits new work by jeweler and sculptor Eric Silva in December.

 

      Get Inspired!

 
 

Patrick R. Benesh-Liu is Associate Editor of Ornament and continues to find time to enjoy craft in between writing, travel and tech support. Earlier in 2016 he visited Gallery Lulo in Healdsburg, where he took great delight in the gallery’s impeccable taste and delicate arrangement. This issue he writes on recent MFA graduate Peter Antor, who he crossed paths with at the 2015 SNAG Conference. Benesh-Liu found much to appreciate in Antor, from his views on personal adornment to his thoughtful ruminations on beauty in architecture and design. As Ornament’s reporter, he also provides a zesty compilation of the latest craft News, where you can find out what is happening with art to wear in the global neighborhood.

Politically Speaking Volume 39.2

POLITICAL THEATER NECKPIECE by Laurie Hall, 2016. Photograph by Dan Kvitka. 

The intensity of our socio-political climate, marred by divisiveness and disillusionment, has come to a head this election cycle. One positive end-result exists; jewelers have turned lemons into lemonade ala Beyoncé, mining this disenchantment like a seemingly endless supply of creative fossil fuel. Work in the recent exhibition “Politically Speaking: New American Ideals in Contemporary Jewelry” at the Craft in America Center explored the way that jewelry engages with current American politics and events. As a communicative channel, jewelry has long been employed to signify political protest, allegiance or affiliation, and pride. In the case of the exhibition’s fifteen artists, political views are given visionary form through various techniques and material choices. Scaled to the body, the force of their messages is undeniable, direct and immediate.

YAZIDI SEX SLAVE NECKLACE by Joyce Scott, 2016. Photograph by Madison Metro.

      Thirty-five objects were selected to touch upon a myriad of topical issues that are the cornerstone of the presidential debate in 2016. From economic recovery to racial profiling, gun laws, campaign spectacles, war, oil, human trafficking, privacy rights, and global technology, the issues that are on the table are captured in these objects, ready to spark discussion.

Oil is a naturally occurring element in this show, as would be expected. Sandra Enterline, who can be categorized as the forensic scientist in the group, views materials as specimens that carry their own multilayered stories and histories. Collecting samples of modern existence with the focused precision of an urban archaeologist, Enterline consistently places the industrial in harmony with the organic throughout her work. For her Pretty Crude series, created for a show in 2011 at Velvet da Vinci in San Francisco, she focused on petroleum, the ultimate symbol of wealth, power and fear in our global world. She began the project by siphoning oil off of a historic well just a few miles away from where she was born in Pennsylvania. She transferred the liquid, which she calls a “curiously beautiful substance,” to petite glass ampoules with golden caps. In one piece they dangle in tandem with pieces of blood red coral, an allusion to the massive destruction caused by the BP oil spill in 2010.

Karen Lorene of Facèré Gallery in Seattle has represented many of the artists and sustained jewelry with a strong narrative and political bent. Collector Cheryl Berenson, who was initiated into the art jewelry world by Lorene, has focused on political commentary, building a formidable arsenal of biting and humorous pieces that mirror landmark events in America’s recent history. “I love it because I get a rise out of people,” she says.

GEORGE WASHINGTON BROOCH by Roberta and David Williamson, 2016.

      Berenson’s collection provided a backbone for the exhibition. Berenson has political activism in her veins, having served as a national advocate for various causes and working in public health primarily with refugee and low-income, at-risk populations in areas of Seattle. She cites these experiences as providing fodder for the fire of her beliefs. In terms of her collection, she is guided by political persuasion and personal experiences, both of which must “fit into the equation” of each piece in order to speak to her. She gravitates to work that says, “the things that need to be said in a way that’s a little sneaky.” It must be no small coincidence that artist Laurie Hall, whose most exceptional Political Theater necklace is showcased in the exhibition, was her daughter’s teacher one year.

Berenson commissioned a humbling, simple tribute by Trudee Hill to honor the memory of Dr. George Tiller, a doctor who was murdered point-blank for providing abortions. Her friend, jeweler Jana Brevick, incorporated rifle targets into a brilliant series of pendants that hang close to the heart and open the dialogue about gun law, another issue that is near and dear to Berenson, who is on the board of the Alliance for Gun Responsibility Foundation in Washington state.

Always willing to tackle the hardest subject matter, Joyce Scott, in her distinct approach to beadwork as social criticism, created a piece dedicated to the Yazidi women who have been enslaved and raped by ISIS since 2014. In June, a UN report estimated that the terrorist group holds about thirty-five hundred slaves. A 2016 MacArthur Fellow, Scott is a true trailblazer who strives to, “use art in a manner that incites people to look, and then carry something home.”

MANTLE FOR TEXTUAL ASSAULT by Nancy Worden, 2015. Photograph by Rex Rystedt.

New technologies have transformed how we communicate, who communicates and how much is communicated. The fundamentals of human interaction and dignity are at stake in a world now dominated by social media, which has created an atmosphere of hyper-saturation for information and news. “We expect more from technology and less from each other,” states Nancy Worden upon her Mantle for Textual Assault, which is the closest one might get to armor for the modern woman.

The show ranged from outright declarations to musings on American iconography. Kat Cole works in enamel and decals to depict the smoky haze of oil fields with ghostly steel towers in the Texas landscape. Ohioans Roberta and David Williamson’s quietly subversive pins, formally referencing official military medallions with their striped ribbons, appear as patriotic tributes to our nation’s first couple but clever puns lie not so deep under the surface waiting to be revealed.

Hailing from elsewhere in Ohio, Detroit metalsmith Tiff Massey filters cultural anthropology through the lens of jewelry. She generates work that redefines the “conversation piece.” Provocative and forceful, her installation is a focal point of the show, in which she pairs four oversize neckpieces with multi-texturally adorned mirrors. The wearer is invited to potentially view oneself while bedecked in her work, although each mirror offers a comment rather than a mere reflection. In two cases, the mirror surface pattern mimics chain link fence, in another, the surface is covered in plastic googley eyes and in the fourth, the surface is black and surrounded by rings of black pompoms. Massey delves into racial stereotypes—from the Rastafarian to the street gangster—racial profiling, consumer culture and profoundly, identity. The overblown scale of her neckwear comically emphasizes the superficial traits that become identifiers, inviting us to consider how surface appearances shape perception.

The artistic medium of jewelry is enjoying a moment in the spotlight, particularly in Los Angeles. On the occasion of the Lois Boardman jewelry collection being gifted to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, modern jewelry finds a new home, albeit one of few, in a major American institution. In a city where global fashion and culture originate, art jewelry will carve a niche of its own. 

There was ample proof in this body of work that beauty can come from unlikely sources and ugly places. Hope lies in the hands of these artists, who create magnetic and alluring pieces that draw us in and force us to look deeper in an age when so many have felt compelled to tune out and turn away.

The Craft in America Center is located at 8415 W. 3rd St., Los Angeles, CA 90048. Visit craftinamerica.org for more information on “Politically Speaking,” where you can view the exhibition online, as well as find a Q&A with Laurie Hall and an interview with Tiff Massey.

 

     Get Inspired!

 
 

Emily Zaiden is a craft, decorative arts and design curator who has served as Director of the Craft in America Center since 2010, shortly after the Center opened in Los Angeles. Craft in America is a nonprofit organization that promotes handcrafted work through a variety of platforms, including a PBS documentary series, website and the Center, which organizes exhibitions, public programs and educational outreach for local schools. As a material culture historian by training, Zaiden views the pieces included in the “Politically Speaking: New American Ideals in Contemporary Jewelry,” exhibition as both wearable art objects and documents of recent American history that will have expanded meaning over the course of time.

Glitterati Volume 39.2

Glitterati
Portraits and Jewelry From Colonial Latin America

TIARA of gilt silver, emeralds, pearls, Colombia or Ecuador, circa 1690. 

Despite its titular implications of spectacle and vanity parade, the Denver Art Museum’s exhibition “Glitterati: Portraits & Jewelry from Colonial Latin America” offers an unexpectedly intimate and contemplative experience of some important pieces from the institution’s core holdings. The general scarcity of Spanish sixteenth- to early nineteenth-century jewelry with documented or even plausible New World provenance precludes the kind of overwhelming display that can be found just one room over, where the museum’s collection of colonial silver hollowware dazzles the eye through sheer expanse of gleaming surfaces. Moreover, the exhibition’s curators Donna Pierce and Julie Wilson Frick seem to have deliberately cultivated an effect of dignified reserve. Surrounded by deep red walls and guarded by somber portraits enveloped in baroque gloom, even the most bejeweled objects in the exhibition appear as small, bright accents rather than aggressive contenders for the spotlight. This is entirely appropriate. The portraits, selected because of their in-situ depictions of jewelry, suggest that Spanish fashion of the colonial period, even in its farthest forays into ornamentation, conveyed a somber strength that restrained the impulse to excess and resisted the frivolity that at times thrived in the salons of Europe. Even in the colonies, the subdued aesthetic of Velazquez and Murillo seems to have been more reflective of Spanish taste than the exuberance of Rubens or the delicacy of Watteau.

      Pearls figured prominently in the jewelry of wealthy colonial women, though given the high rate at which bracelets, necklaces and pendants were later cannibalized in the interest of keeping up with mercurial fashion, it is not surprising that only three pieces among the jewelry displayed in the exhibition actually contain pearls. The portraits serve as more accurate indicators of historical practice. A painting of Doña Maria del Carmen Cortés Santelices y Cartavio Roldán, the creole wife of a Spanish-born judge in Trujillo, Peru, depicts the blue-eyed eighteenth-century matron adorned with earrings of gold-framed mother-of-pearl disks with triple pearl drops, pearl bracelets of four strands on each wrist, and a silver foliate cross suspended from a three-strand pearl necklace. From a century later, a staid three-quarter-view portrait of an unknown elderly Colombian woman, whose presumably thin gray hair is entirely hidden by a close-fitting black cap, features a single gold and large pearl drop earring as sufficient proof of her wealth and social status.

 

To Read The Complete Article

 
 

Glen R. Brown, a professor of art history at Kansas State University and a frequent writer on jewelry and metalwork, has a longstanding interest in the decorative arts of Latin America. The Denver Art Museum’s exhibition “Glitterati: Portraits & Jewelry from Colonial Latin America” provided a rare opportunity to study some particularly fine surviving examples of seventeenth- to nineteenth-century work in gold and silver, but he was most impressed by the juxtaposition of jewelry and its representation in period paintings: “what may be the best way to look at historical objects and remember why they were made.”

Heavenly Bodies Volume 39.2

Heavenly Bodies: The Exhibition
An Idea, Its Implementation and A Compelling Result

WILHELM BUCHERT BANGLE of gold, opal and pearl, 1969. Collection of Schmuckmuseum Pforzheim. Photograph by Rudiger Floter.

It all began in Saint Petersburg in the fall of 2013, during a conversation with Anna Vladimirovna Ratnikova, one of the jewelry curators at the Russian Museum of Ethnography, which, along with the Hermitage, the State Russian Museum and the Kunstkamera Museum, ranks among the city’s major museums. We talked about potential exhibition projects, about themes hitherto not contemplated, about new approaches to showcasing the rich diversity of jewelry in terms of appearance and forms of expression. Anna sparked a great idea by asking whether there had ever been an exhibition themed around celestial bodies, i.e. the sun, the moon and the stars in jewelry.

      An idea was born: an idea that was intriguing, an idea whose implementation opened up a new area of research, an idea that eventually led to the “Heavenly Bodies: The Sun, Moon and Stars in Jewellery” exhibition at Pforzheim’s Jewelry Museum (Schmuckmuseum Pforzheim), probably a worldwide first and with the participation of renowned international partners, such as the Louvre and the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Museum of Decorative Arts) in Paris, the Kunsthistorisches Museum (Museum of Art History) in Vienna, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths in London and the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen (State Art Collections) in Dresden, to name just a few, as well as private collectors and contemporary artists from both Germany and abroad, who all responded generously and unhesitatingly to the Jewelry Museum’s request for loans.

From the start, the intention was to cover the theme, both in the exhibition and in the accompanying book, in a manner that reveals the global dimension of “heavenly jewelry.”

The preliminary work was widely ramified. Our considerations included the visual arts, literature and music, as well as religions and myths from many of the world’s cultures and regions, and we explored the diversity of the celestial bodies’ representation in the artistic crafts, for example. New dimensions regarding our understanding of the cosmos, of the universe, emerged, also and particularly in terms of its extensive relations to jewelry. After all: the Ancient Greek word for cosmos, κόσµος, means universe, order and jewelry as well!

 

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Fritz Falk, a master goldsmith and jewelry historian, began his career as a research assistant at Pforzheim’s Jewelry Museum, and became its director in 1971. Since then, he has significantly expanded its collection, and has developed it into a specialized museum that is unique worldwide, one whose exhibits are much sought after as exquisite loans for exhibitions all over the planet. While the main focus of Falk’s activity was on collecting jewelry from classical antiquity, the Renaissance and the Art Nouveau period, he also felt particularly committed to highlighting modern, contemporary jewelry trends. After retiring in 2004, he curated “Serpentina: The Snake in Jewellery From Around the World” in 2011 to mark the Reuchlinhaus’s fiftieth anniversary.

Peter Antor Volume 39.2

ARCHITECTONIC RING #3 of silver, ebony, cement, powder coat, twenty-four karat gold leaf, 7.62 x 10.16 x 7.62 centimeters, 2016.

There is a secret realm where imagination resides. It is right in front of us, yet unseeable. It is always present, yet so often hides itself from view. It can be accessed at any time, but cannot be forced, or it is as ungraspable as a gust of wind. This is the universe in miniature that Peter Antor seeks to unlock in all of us with his work, and it is a project both ambitious and passionate.

      The incubation room for this passion is architecture. Antor’s sense of wonder with human-made structures is reminiscent of a child’s awe wandering into a toy store for the first time. “Living in Grand Rapids, it’s not a big city, but it has the vibes you get from big buildings,” he observes, “the hustle and bustle. There’s a Frank Lloyd Wright house right in Grand Rapids called the Meyer May House, and I’ve always been fascinated with Frank Lloyd Wright’s designs.” Antor goes on to say how enclosed, finite spaces can seem vaster than the sky. Being within a colossal building somehow relates a difference in scale that peering into infinity cannot.

 

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Patrick R. Benesh-Liu is Associate Editor of Ornament and continues to find time to enjoy craft in between writing, travel and tech support. Earlier in 2016 he visited Gallery Lulo in Healdsburg, where he took great delight in the gallery’s impeccable taste and delicate arrangement. This issue he writes on recent MFA graduate Peter Antor, who he crossed paths with at the 2015 SNAG Conference. Benesh-Liu found much to appreciate in Antor, from his views on personal adornment to his thoughtful ruminations on beauty in architecture and design. As Ornament’s reporter, he also provides a zesty compilation of the latest craft News, where you can find out what is happening with art to wear in the global neighborhood.

Susan Bradley Volume 39.2

Susan Bradley
An Elegant Minimalism

NEOPRENE COAT with silk quilted belt, 2007. Model: Sara Rogers. Photographs by Paul Weber.

When you encounter Susan Bradley’s work at an American Craft Council Show, Smithsonian Craft Show or Philadelphia Museum of Art Craft Show, you might be surprised to learn that she works from a studio and showroom in Minnesota. Her work is sophisticated, flexible and strikingly contemporary—not qualities people from other parts of the country tend to associate with the Midwest. Yet Bradley’s work stems directly from her Midwestern heritage and experiences.

      Born in Wisconsin, Bradley grew up in Hudson, a small quiet town on the western edge of the state. She was the only girl in the family and people fussed over her. Her mother worked, but still found time to sew for herself and for her daughter. Many of the mothers of her friends also worked, and they took great care with their appearance, their make-up and how they dressed, punctuated by weekly trips to the hairdresser. (Think Mad Men without the promiscuity!)

This young girl’s environment was already saturated with thoughts of clothes and fashion design. The mother of her best friend in grade school made wedding dresses and clothing for other people. She and that friend got the scraps from those projects and others. While their mothers were at work, the girls would disappear into the sewing room after school to design and sew clothes for their dolls. Bradley admitted feeling more than a little envious of the beautiful clothes that her friend’s mother made for the little girl, and did once get a dress made by the seamstress, too. Even then she appreciated the quality of the sewing and construction.

 

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Kathleen Richert has run a studio business since 1995, designing and creating clothing and soft props for museums, theater, commercial, and private clients. She specializes in historic reproduction clothing, primarily from the Regency, Georgian, American Fur Trade, and Civil War periods. She also is in the process of writing a children’s book about various species of birds, which she will be handpainting herself. Richert met with Susan Bradley, fashionista extraordinaire, and discovered a life-long wanderer who became inspired by a foreign culture, bringing back the materials that sparked her career in creating fetching clothes that feature a timeless appeal.

Saul Bell Design Award 2016 Volume 39.1

Saul Bell Design Award 2016

KATHLEEN NOWAK TUCCI. Secret Garden Necklace of recycled motorcycle and bicycle inner tubes and Nespresso coffee capsules, Second Place Alternative Metals/Materials.

 

Springtime is a special season for the Rio Grande company in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Each May there is cause for celebration as Rio Grande announces the recipients of the Saul Bell Design Award competition. 2016 marks its sixteenth year of honoring distinctive work in jewelry design. The Award invites artists to select from seven specific categories of materials to produce innovative works which are then juried in two rounds by accomplished experts in the field of jewelry. This year’s diverse blend of jurors for the final round included Teresa Frye, Jeffrey Herman, Karen Lorene, G. Phil Poirier, and Jim Tuttle. Final round judges examine each finalist’s piece by hand and as worn on a model. Teresa Frye is a leading expert on jewelry casting and president of TechForm Advanced Casting Technology. With an international reputation for quality craftsmanship, Herman began his life as a silversmith while still in high school, and went on to found the Society of American Silversmiths to preserve and promote this beautiful artform. Gallerist Karen Lorene heads Facèré Jewelry Art Gallery in Seattle, Washington, one of the few prominent galleries in the United States still showing original works by contemporary studio jewelers as well as antique jewelry, a passion of Lorene’s. A master gem-cutter and practicing artist, Poirier is owner of Bonny Doon Engineering where he develops hydraulic presses for the jewelry industry. Founder and president of Green Lake Jewelry Works, Tuttle’s company is one of the largest custom jewelry shops with over fifty jewelers in one location.

JUSTINE GAGNON. Monsieur Bracelet of sterling silver and plastic tube, Second Place Emerging Jewelry Artist.

     

Another public acknowledgment of her innovative recycled jewelry, this is the second consecutive year that Kathleen Nowak Tucci has placed in the Alternative Metals/Materials category, this time with her Secret Garden entry, whose secret is to be discovered on the back of the necklace.  Her materials range from bicycle and motorcycle inner tubes to the bright metallic colors of Nespresso coffee capsules.

Garen Garibian’s prize-winning piece The Queen must in some part be considered a labor of love—the ring took two years to make, a deliberately gradual process. Garibian’s interests reside not just with achieving some fabulous physical tour de force but also with setting personal challenges to resolve through the execution of his careful, exacting skill set.

Enamelist Amy Roper Lyons has secured a third Saul Bell Design Award with her beautiful celestial bejeweled celebration of the universe. Her Orbit #2 is part of an ongoing series inspired by photographs taken of deep space by the Hubble Telescope. A self-described perfectionist, Roper Lyons is all hands on, from her enameling knowledge and practice of cloisonné, plique-à-jour and basse taille to her metalsmithing repertoire of traditional goldsmithing techniques.

Patrik Kusek’s submission is centered around personal loss—his mother has dementia, and Memory Interrupted was designed for and dedicated to her. It is an extraordinarily lovely tribute to Kusek’s mother, and has a life beyond the personal as it quietly communicates to those responding to its poetic beauty. Kusek works in many materials, not just metal clay, and he cites Judith Kinghorn and Harold O’Connor as having been important to his professional development.

 

GAREN GARIBIAN. The Queen Ring of eighteen karat white and rose gold, including freshwater pearls, diamonds, sapphires, and moonstones,
First Place Gold/Platinum.
SAMANTHA FREEMAN. Peacock Pin of eighteen karat gold, Namibian tourmaline, diamonds, and sapphires, Second Place Gold/Platinum.
ZOLTAN DAVID. Moonshine Pendant of platinum, cobalt chromium steel, stainless steel, diamonds, and moonstone, First Place Alternative Metals/Materials.
AMY ROPER LYONS. Orbit #2 Pin/Pendant of eighteen and twenty-four karat gold, enamel, lapis, and diamonds, Second Place Enamel.

 

      For artist Wolfgang Vaatz, the inspiration for his award-winning neckpiece was the quartz crystal with natural tubes, carved by Tom Munsteiner, a noted German gem sculptor from the internationally renowned Munsteiner family of cutters. His jewelry inspiration is derived from the natural landscape and his experiences within it; Vaatz also utilizes asymmetry and color contrast to achieve a well-balanced composition, as he puts it, for a “calming zen-like effect.”

Because Samantha Freeman’s The Peacock Pin was so complicated to make, and entirely hand-fabricated, she first constructed a silver model before going on to actually make the piece in eighteen karat gold, Namibian tourmaline, diamonds, and sapphires. Her two biggest historical influences have been Fabergé and Lalique, but contemporaries, like studio jeweler Tom Herman, are also considered as important mentors, including Alan Revere who has been a major influence on decades of novice and professional jewelers through his Revere Academy of Jewelry Arts, in San Francisco.

 

SEUNG JEON PAIK. Unity Brooch of silver and eighteen karat gold, First Place Silver/Argentium® Silver.
TOM FERRERO. Mace of silver, twenty-four karat gold over sterling, copper, resin, enamel, Italian acetate, and over two hundred gems including diamonds, garnets, citrines, topaz, amber, and zircon, First Place Hollowware/Art Objects.
WOLFGANG VAATZ. Neckpiece of sterling/argentium® silver, unrefined placer gold, twenty-two karat gold, quartz crystal carved by Tom Munsteiner, Second Place Silver/Argentium® Silver.

 

      An MFA student at the Savannah College of Art and Design (many of its graduates go on to become prominent studio jewelers), Seung Jeon Paik secured First Place in the Silver/Argentium® Silver Category, a nice coup for this already accomplished young designer. This also is Paik’s first Saul Bell Design Award. “Everything in the universe is composed of particles,” is the statement that serves as the source for his inspiration. His Unity Brooch utilizes the technique of granulation to illustrate them. Paik uses thirty-two-gauge silverwire onto which eighteen karat gold granules are fused and employs Rhino 3D software to position the wires and the golden grains. “Mastery of skill is an important aspect of my work,” states Paik. “Artists obtain this mastery with deep understanding of the materials, tools, techniques, and possibilities of application.” He regards SCAD professor Jay Song as a mentor—one who encourages Paik to balance academics with life outside it—and the late artist Hermann Jünger, a pioneer in contemporary jewelry.

 
 
 
 

DEBBIE SHEEZEL. Silken Wing Neckpiece of eighteen, twenty-two, twenty-four karat gold, sterling silver, enamel, and blue quartz,
First Place Enamel.

      Debbie Sheezel, not only an accomplished enamelist but also painter, took First Place in Enamel. In making jewelry, her priority is with its wearability: “to me they are wearable art.” She points out that her creativity is “completely unpredictable. Anything can trigger it. Enamels are time-consuming and have rules that must be obeyed, but the outcome is so beautiful that the time spent is worth it.” She is one of a number of finalists who reside in countries other than the United States (in her case, Australia) who bring a global component to the Saul Bell Design Award, which increasingly has as one of its primary goals internationalization of the competition.

There is still time to enter for 2017. Registration is open until October 27, 2016, with its springtime salute to the winners on May 21, 2017 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Visit www.saulbellaward.com for more information about submitting applications.

 

PATRIK KUSEK. Memory Interrupted Necklace of pearls, simulated citrines, peridots, silver PMC, and twenty-two karat gold, Second Place Metal Clay.

 

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Carolyn L. E. Benesh is Coeditor of Ornament and the magazine’s expert on contemporary wearable art. As Ornament resident itinerant, she moves to and fro across the United States in search of inspiring craft, great experiences, and of course, excellent food. Among her yearly stops are the Smithsonian Craft Show in Washington, D.C., and the Philadelphia Museum of Art Craft Show in Pennsylvania, both occasions to meet old friends and make new acquaintances. This issue she gives her appreciation for the winners of Rio Grande’s Saul Bell Design Award, acknowledging the excellence in craft that the competition promotes.

Stone Beads and Their Imitations Volume 39.1

Lapidary Skills & Imitations In Stone Beads

FOUR ANCIENT TABULAR/LENTICULAR HARD STONE BEADS FROM AFGHANISTAN AND TWO REPLICA AGATE BEADS; these carnelian and agate tabular beads are very similar to Mesopotamian third millennium beads, 2.8 - 3.5 centimeters long, 0.6 - 0.9 centimeters thick. Courtesy of Anahita Gallery and J. Lafortune, 1978. Two lowest beads are new replica tabular agate and leech beads from Iran and Cambay, 0.6 - 1.0 centimeters thick; Courtesy of W. Seifried, 2006 and Beadazzled/Kamol, 1999. Due to better lapidary equipment, especially drills, many replica beads are now thinner than the prototypes. Photographs by Robert K. Liu/Ornament; shot with studio strobes, using softboxes for both transillumination/reflected lighting or just reflective lighting when shooting on black Tufflock. 

Recently we relocated our office of the past twenty-six years into a much more manageable space. This entailed examining, sorting and discarding old files, as well as other material collected over forty-two years of publishing. While packing our study bead collections, I was struck again by the beauty of ancient hard stone beads, the lapidary skills of their makers, and how skilled contemporary stone beadmakers had become in producing imitations, replicas or their own designs. Such observations and insights are very similar to the pleasure of re-discovering books in your library that you have not read for years.

      I have always regarded tabular hard stone beads of the third millennium as among the most aesthetic uses of stone, as well as so-called leech beads, which can date as early as 2200 to about 300 B.C. (Liu 1999). If one is cognizant of bead history and technology, the roles of stone beads in ancient world trade and exchange, then the importance of simulations would be readily apparent...

 

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Robert K. Liu is Coeditor of Ornament and for many years its in-house photographer. His recent book, The Photography of Personal Adornment, covers forty plus years of shooting jewelry, clothing and events related to wearable art, both in and out of the Ornament studio. In this issue Liu writes about the Ethnic Costume Museum in Beijing, which he visited with Carolyn and Patrick in 2013, on a return to China after sixty-seven years in the United States. While going through the recent move of the Ornament office, he restudied some ancient stone beads in its study bead collection, marveling at both the skill of ancient and contemporary stone beadmakers, especially those who did replicas or imitations.

International Folk Art Market Volume 39.1

International Folk Art Market

IDA BAGUS ANOM SURYAWAN, mask carver from Mas Village in Bali, Indonesia. Photograph © by Marc Romanelli.

If there was ever a riot of colors and sensations, rebelling against the staid bland urbanity of modern life, the International Folk Art Market, held annually in Santa Fe, New Mexico, would be it. Bringing together travelers from across the world, and pairing what is quintessentially local art with a meeting ground accessible by a global audience, this festival of human creativity is rather remarkable to say the least.

      The event began in 2003 as an effort to empower folk artists by providing them with a marketplace that they could never have accessed otherwise. The thought was many artists in first, second and third-world nations create beautiful work, but are limited to selling to their village, tribe or the occasional tourist. By providing a venue in the United States and assisting them in traveling to America, these folk artisans could experience a windfall in profits while giving visitors the opportunity to purchase unusual crafts and art to which they might never have been exposed. It was a win-win concept, similar to the idea of micro-loans, and it has been hugely successful...

 

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Patrick R. Benesh-Liu is Associate Editor of Ornament and continues to find time to enjoy craft in between writing, travel and tech support. This April he attended the Smithsonian Craft Show, always a favorite, where he was part of a panel led by Craft in America producer Carol Sauvion discussing the state of craft in the twenty-first century. He contributes to the current issue an exploration of the International Folk Art Market in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a world bazaar if there ever was one. As Ornament’s reporter, he also provides a zesty compilation of the latest craft News, where you can find out what is happening with art-to-wear in the global neighborhood.

Beijing's Ethnic Costume Museum Volume 39.1

Beijing's Ethnic Costume Museum

CLOTHING GALLERY, with spinning fixtures and weaving looms in foreground. Such textile furniture has also been preserved in other museums. Photographs by Robert K. Liu and Patrick Benesh-Liu/Ornament; shot hand-held, with high-ISO and no flash, to prevent light damage.

China is a land rich in museums—by the end of 2013, there were almost twenty-seven hundred known institutions. We first covered exhibitions at Chinese museums in 1982, when my brother David and I co-wrote about Qing Dynasty jewelry in the Museum of Treasures, Beijing. This was shortly after China was opened to Americans, after President Nixon’s visit, when my brother was working for American television news. Since then, we have had occasional coverage of exhibitions there: in 2000, “Forbidden City” by Carolyn Benesh; in 2008, when Patrick Benesh-Liu made his first visit to China, and reviewed the Shanghai Museum of Art. In 2013, I returned to China after an absence of sixty-seven years. Having left Shanghai as a child of eight, China was so different, yet still so familiar in essence. During our whirlwind trip through Shanghai, Beijing, Hangzhou, and Jinze, we visited museums in each city. Our review of the Warring States beads exhibition at the Shanghai Museum of Glass in 2013 was an example of such coverage.

 

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Robert K. Liu is Coeditor of Ornament and for many years its in-house photographer. His recent book, The Photography of Personal Adornment, covers forty plus years of shooting jewelry, clothing and events related to wearable art, both in and out of the Ornament studio. In this issue Liu writes about the Ethnic Costume Museum in Beijing, which he visited with Carolyn and Patrick in 2013, on a return to China after sixty-seven years in the United States. While going through the recent move of the Ornament office, he restudied some ancient stone beads in its study bead collection, marveling at both the skill of ancient and contemporary stone beadmakers, especially those who did replicas or imitations.